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which contains two long monologues treated en melodrame.

[ G. ]

DUPARC. See Francesina.

DUPORT. Two eminent cellists, brothers.

1. Jean Pierre—'Duport l'ainé'—born at Paris, Nov. 27, 1741. Considered the best pupil of Berthaut. Soon achieved a great reputation in Paris, but after 10 years of success started on a lengthened tour through England and Spain, and finally in 1773, on the invitation of Frederick the Great, settled at Berlin as first cello in the king's band, and after Frederick's death director of Court concerts. After the battle of Jena, his post was abolished, but he continued to live at Berlin till his death in 1818 [App. p.619 "Dec. 31"]. His publications are few and unimportant.

2. He was eclipsed by his brother, Jean Louis, also born at Paris, Oct. 4, 1749. His fame, like his brother's, came early [App. p.619 "he made his début at the Concert Spirituel in 1768"], but it was the arrival of Viotti in Paris (1782) that inspired him to imitate the breadth and brilliancy of style of that great violinist, and thus to become the extraordinary player he was. About this time he made the acquaintance of Crosdill, and at his invitation visited London for six months. On the breaking out of the Revolution he joined his brother in Berlin, and entered the king's band. At that time he had the reputation of being one of the first cello players of the day, and was much visited and sought after. He had not the force and execution of Romberg, but in tone and style was unrivalled. It was either with him or his brother—probably with him—that Beethoven played his two sonatas for piano and cello (op. 5) at the Prussian Court in 1796. Duport returned to Paris in 1806 ruined by the war. Though his playing was as fine as it had ever been, he had great difficulty in obtaining employment. He entered the service of the ex-King of Spain at Marseilles, but returned to Paris in 1812. At length fortune smiled on him, he was admitted into the private band of Marie Louise, then into that of the Emperor, and at length as professor into the Conservatoire. In the evening of his life he composed a great deal, but the work by which he will survive is his 'Essai sur le doigter du violoncello et la conduite de l'archet, avec une suite d'exercises.' A sentence from this work exhibits the modesty of a great artist. 'Tout le monde connoît le coup d'archet martelé ou staccato; c'est une affaire de tacte et d'addresse. Il y a des personnes qui le saisissent tout de suite, d'autres ne parviennent jamais à le faire parfaitement. Je suis du nombre ' (p. 171). His cello became the property of Franchomme, who purchased it for the enormous sum of 25,000 francs (£1,000). He died at Paris 1819 [App. p.619 "Sept. 7"].

[ G. ]

DUPREZ, Gilbert, the 13th of the 22 children of a Paris perfumer, was born Dec. 6, 1806. Having completed his studies under Choron at the Conservatoire, he made his début (Dec. 1825) as tenor at the Odéon, where Castil-Blaze was producing his translations of the favourite operas of Rossini and Weber. His success was not great, and when the theatre closed in 1828 he went to Italy. At first he attracted little attention; but having altered his style and adopted the 'voix sombrée' he became speedily popular, and by his creation of the part of Edgardo in 'Lucia di Lammermoor' (Naples, 1835) placed himself at the head of the French dramatic singers of his time. He was engaged for the Grand Opéra in Paris, and made his first appearance (April 17, 1837) in 'Guillaume Tell,' when his novel and striking reading of his part contributed greatly to the revival of the opera. During the 12 years he remained at this theatre he created the principal tenor part in 'Guido et Ginevra,' 'Benvenuto Cellini,' 'Le Lac des fées,' 'Les Martyrs,' 'La Favorite,' 'La Reine de Chypre,' 'Charles VII,' 'Dom Sébastien,' 'Otello,' 'Lucie,' and 'Jérusalem' (a translation of 'I Lombardi'), as well as playing the parts created by Nourrit in 'La Muette,' 'Robert,' 'La Juive,' 'Les Huguenots,' and 'Stradella.' His physical appearance was against him, and he had a propensity to over gesticulation; but in spite of these defects he made his way as a tragedian, and was frantically applauded for his excellent declamation and the smoothness of his 'canto spianato.' His two most serious faults, the abuse of the notes 'sombrées,' so prematurely wearing to the voice, and a habit of dragging the time, which is as fatal to the interests of the composer as it is to all artistic interpretation, have materially affected French singing to the present day. Duprez was professor of singing at the Conservatoire from 1842 to 1850, and in 1853 founded an 'Ecole spéciale de chant,' which still exists, and has turned out many dramatic singers. He has composed romances, chamber music, two masses, and eight operas, of which the best are 'Joanita' 1848; 'La lettre au bon Dieu' (1851); and 'Jeanne d'Arc' (1857) though none of the eight have any originality. He has also published 'L'Art du chant' (1845) and 'La Mélodie' (1873), two Methods which deserve to be better known.

[ G. C. ]

DUPUIS, Thomas Sanders, Mus. Doc., was born in England of French parents in 1733 [App. p.619 "1730"]. He received his early musical education as a chorister of the Chapel Royal under Bernard Gates, and subsequently became a pupil of John Travers, then one of the organists of the Chapel Royal. On the death of Dr. Boyce, in 79, Dupuis was appointed his successor as organist of the Chapel Royal. On June 26, 1790, he accumulated the degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of Music at Oxford. He died in 96 [App. p.619 "July 17"]. He published during his lifetime several sonatas and concertos for the pianoforte, some organ pieces, chants, anthems, and glees. In the year after his death a selection from his cathedral music was published under the editorship of John Spencer, one of his pupils, to which his portrait is prefixed. Dupuis was one of the best organists of his time.

[ W. H. H. ]

DURAND, alias DURANOWSKY, Auguste Frédéric, violin-player, born at Warsaw about 1770. After having received his first instruction