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When at her prime, Fodor's voice was not only powerful but extremely sweet and round, with a peculiarly charming accent, and a faultless intonation. She was very painstaking, and acquired by practice a flexibility with which she was not naturally gifted. Her daughter Enrichetta, also a singer of merit, was very successful at the Königstadt Theatre in Berlin between the years 1846–9 (not the Friedrich-Wilhelmstädt Theatre).

[ F. G. ]

FÖRSTEMANN, Carl Eduard, antiquary, published 'Georg Friedrich Händel's Stammbaum, nach original-Quellen und authentischen Nachrichten aufgestellt und erläutert' (Leipzig, Breitkopf & Härtel, 1844), a carefully compiled genealogy of the great composer.

[ M. C. C. ]

FÖRSTER, Emanuel Aloys, composer of good chamber-music, born at Niederstein, Glatz, Silesia, Jan. 26, 1748. In his youth he studied music by himself, and composed industriously, while obeying his father by attending the Latin school, and working under him as an accountant at a tavern. He afterwards served in the Prussian army, and in 1776 resolved to go to Vienna in order to cultivate music thoroughly. There he soon became one of the most valued teachers of thorough-bass and composition, and his works were universally respected as the products of sound thought and earnest study. In 1802 he published his 'Anleitung zum Generalbass' (Traeg) with 146 examples, a clear practical work still of value. In 1805 it was re-published by Breitkopf & Härtel, and a new edition by Artaria in 1824. Förster added three supplementary numbers of practical examples. His compositions consist of 48 violin quartets, numerous pianoforte sonatas, preludes and fugues for Lieder, etc. He composed the variations in A on an air from Sarti's opera 'I finti Eredi,' which were long attributed to Mozart, and extremely popular; and which appeared in many editions of Mozart's works. (Köchel, p. 530, No. 289; compare Jahn's 'Mozart,' ed. 1, iv. 11; ed. 2, ii. 137.) Förster was held in high estimation by all the composers of his own time, particularly by Beethoven, who speaks of him in terms implying he had learnt much from him. He died at Vienna Nov. 12, 1823. His place and date of birth and death, much disputed points, are given here from the Transactions of the 'Tonkünstler-Societät,' of which he was a member.

[ C. F. P. ]

FOGGIA, Francesco, the last Italian church composer who remained faithful to the traditions of Palestrina; born in Rome 1604, studied under Cifra, Nanini, and Agostini. He then entered the service of the Elector of Cologne, the Elector of Bavaria, and the Archduke Leopold of Austria in turn. After his return to Italy he was appointed maestro di capella successively at Narni, Montefiascone, and the following churches in Rome,—Santa Maria in Aquiro, Santa Maria in Trastevere, St. John Lateran (1636–61), San Lorenzo in Damaso, and Santa Maria Maggiore (1677), which last post he retained till his death, Jan. 8, 1688, when he was succeeded by his son Antonio. He is buried in the church of S. Praxede. He published much church music for from 2 to 9 voices (see the list in Fétis), and most of the churches in Rome possess some works by him in MS. Martini has analysed some of his motets in the 'Saggio di contrappunto.' Liberati calls him 'il sostegno e il padre della musica e della vera armonica ecclesiastica.' He was one of the first musicians to write tonal fugues, while he was the last Italian capable of composing genuine church music in the polyphonic style. Mr. Hullah has printed a fine motet by him in his 'Vocal Scores.'

[ F. G. ]

FOLIA. Said to be an old Spanish dance for a single dancer—'ces belles chaconnes, ces Folies d'Espagne,' which the son of the seneschal of Rennes danced to such perfection (Mad. de Sevigné, July 24, 1689). But really all that is known of it is that the 22 variations, or the theme of them, which close Corelli's 12 solos (op. 5) are entitled Follia; that the same bass and air, but with different variations, are given in the 'Division Violin' as 'Faronell's division on a ground'; that Vivaldi's op. 1, no. 12, is a set of variations on the same; and that Hawkins (chap. 141) cites it as 'a favourite air known in England by the name of Farinelli's[1] Ground,' composed by Farinelli, the uncle of the singer, who was court musician at Hanover in 1684. It seems to follow from this that the ground, and not the treble part, was the 'air,' just as it is in the chaconnes of Bach and Handel (60 variations). The ground is one on which a skilful violin player and a skilful dancer might go on fiddling and dancing ad ifinitum. The following is Corelli's theme:—

{ \time 3/4 \key d \minor << \relative d'' { d4 d4.( e8) cis2. d4 d4.( c!16 d) e2. f4 f4.( g8) e2. d8 cis d4.( e8) cis2. d4 d4.( e8) cis2. d4 d4.( c!16 d) e2. f4 f4.( g8) e2 f4 d d4.( cis8) d2. \bar "||" }
\new Staff { \clef bass \key d \minor \relative d { d2. a d c f c2 cis4 d bes2 a2. d a d c f c4. cis8 d4 g, a2 d2. } } 
\figures { <_>2. <_+> <5>8 <6!> <_>2 <_>2. <_> <_>2 <6>4 <_> <7>8 <6> <_>4 <_+>2. <_> <_+> <5>8 <6!> <_>2 <_>1. <_>4. <6>8 <_>4 <7 6> <5 4>8 <_+> } >> }

Cherubini has introduced 8 bars of it in the opening of the Overture to the 'Hôtellerie Portugaise.'

[ G. ]

FORBES, Henry, born in 1804, studied music under Sir George Smart, Hummel, Moscheles, and Herz. He was an excellent pianist and organist, and conductor of the Societa Armonica. He for some years held the appointment of organist of the parish church of St. Luke, Chelsea. His published compositions comprise several songs and a collection of psalm tunes for 4 voices called

  1. The common English name was 'Fardinell's,' as Madame de Querouaille was called 'Madam Carvell.'