Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/577

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lished 'Anweisung, wie man Claviere ... in allen zwölf Tönen gleich rein stiminen könne, etc.' (Leipzig 1756–7–80), a new system of tuning keyed instruments by means of fifths and octaves, which, though erroneous, had much success, having gone through 3 editions, and being translated into Dutch by no less a person than Hummel.

[ M. C. C. ]

FROBERGER,[1] Johann Jacob, eminent organist, born, according to Mattheson, at Halle in Saxony, where his father was Cantor, but at what date is unknown. On the accession of the Emperor Ferdinand III (Feb. 15. 1637) he was appointed court organist at Vienna. There are entries of his salary in the accounts of the Hofcapelle, from Jan. 1 to Sept 30, 1637[2], from April 1, 1641, to Oct. 1645, and from April i, 1653, to June 30, 1657. The interval from 1637–41 was occupied by his stay in Italy as Frescobaldi's pupil, and a grant of 200 florins for his journey is entered in the accounts under June 22, 1637. In 1657 he left the Emperor's service. In 1662 he journeyed to London, where he was twice robbed on the way, and arrived in so destitute a condition, that he thankfully accepted the post of organ-blower at Westminster Abbey, offered him by Christopher Gibbons, then organist of the Chapel Royal and the Abbey. Gibbons was playing before the Court on the occasion of Charles II's marriage, when Froberger overblew the bellows, and thus interrupted the performance, on which the enraged organist overwhelmed him with abuse and even blows. Froberger seized the opportunity a few minutes after to sit down to the instrument, and improvised in a style which was at once recognised by a foreign lady who had formerly been his pupil and knew his touch. She presented him to the King, who received him graciously, and made him play on the harpsichord to the astonishment of all. This curious anecdote is not mentioned by English writers, but is given by Mattheson (Ehrenpforte) from Froberger's own MS. notes. Mattheson states that he became a Roman Catholic during his visit to Rome, but it is almost certain that he was already one when he entered the Emperor's service in 1637. The late Anton Schmidt, Custos of the Imperial library, maintained that he again became a Lutheran after his visit to London, and was dismissed from his post of Court organist on that account. The contradiction has never been explained, but that he died a Catholic we know, from an autograph letter of Sibylla, Duchess Dowager of Wurtemberg, who was his pupil, and who offered him an asylum in her house at Héricourt, near Montbelliard, where he died May 7, 1667. See 'Zwei Briefe über J. J. Froberger ... von Dr. Edmund Schebek' (Prague 1874). His printed works—here first given accurately—are 1. 'Diverse ingegnosissime e rarissime Partite di Toccate, Canzoni, Ricercari ... Stampate da Lodovico Bourgeat ... Mogont. 1693'—two copies in possession of the author, one with Italian title, the other with Italian and German. The copies quoted in other works with dates 1695, 1714, are printed from the same plates, but with different titles. 2. 'Diverse ... etc., Prima continuazione. Mog. 1696.' 3. 'Suites de Clavecin, par Giacomo Froberger' 2nd edition, Amsterdam, Roger. This last is in the library at Berlin, where are also several autograph vols. of Froberger's dated 1649 and 1656, containing, amongst others, some of the pieces in the above collections. The Imperial Library at Vienna also contains a MS. of 222 sheets of Toccatas, Caprices, etc.

[ F. G. ]

FRÖHLICH. There were four sisters of this name, all natives of Vienna.

1. The eldest, Nanette (Anna), born Sept. 19, 1793, a pupil of Hummel for the piano, and of Hauss and Siboni for singing, became an excellent artist in both branches. From 1819–54 she was teacher of singing at the Conservatoire of Vienna, where she trained many dramatic and concert singers, since celebrated. She will be always gratefully remembered for having induced F. Schubert to write the following pieces:—'Gott ist mein Hirt' (Psalm xxiii), op. 132; and 'Gott in der Natur,' op. 133, both for 4 women's voices; 'Nachthelle,' op. 134, for tenor solo and 4 men's voices; the Serenade ('Zögernd, leise'), op. 135, for alto solo and 4 women's voices; Miriam's Song, op. 136; and Des Tages Weihe (Schicksalslenker'), op. 146, for soprano solo and chorus. Grillparzer wrote the words for the Serenade and Miriam's Song also at her instigation.

2. Barbara, born August 30, 1797, excelled both as a contralto singer and a painter of portraits and flowers. She married Ferdinand Bogner, a government employé and eminent flute-player, who was honorary professor at the Conservatoire from 1821 until his death in 45.

3. Josephine, born Dec. 12, 1803, a distinguished singer, pupil of her sister at the Conservatoire (1819–21), made her début at concerts so successfully that she was immediately engaged for the court theatre (1821–22). Shortly afterwards, however, she went to Copenhagen, and completed her studies under Siboni, who had settled there. As a concert singer she was very well received in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, and was appointed private singer to the King of Denmark. Later she went to Italy, and sang in the operas of Venice (1829) and Milan (31) with brilliant success. The Societa Apollinea of Venice elected her an honorary member. After her return to Vienna she seldom appeared at concerts, and turned her attention almost entirely to teaching singing. She died May 7, 1878.

4. Katharina, born June 10, 1800, though not a musician, must not be omitted from this band of sisters. Her cultivated mind and sympathetic disposition eminently fitted her to be the intimate friend and associate of the great Austrian poet Grillparzer, who was deeply susceptible to music, and passed the greater part of his life in the house of these sisters until his death in 1872. It was 'Kathi' especially, with her quiet unassuming ways, whom the poet reverenced as his

  1. So, and not Frohberger, is the name spelt by the last investigator, Dr. E. Schebek.
  2. This alone shows that the received date of his birth, 1635, must be wrong.