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Grand Opèra, besides 'Fazzoletto' at the Italians, 'La Meunière' at the Gymnase, and 3 others which never reached the stage. In the spring of 1823 he re-appeared in London, where he was still a most effective singer (Ebers). Here he founded his famous school of singing. He sang in London again in 1824 in 'Zelmira' and 'Ricciardo e Zoraide.' In the same year his 'Deux contrats' was given at the Opéra Comique. In 1825 he was here again, his salary having risen from £260 (1823) to £1250. He continued to gain still greater fame by teaching than by singing, and his fertility as a composer was shown by at least 2 Italian operas, 'Astuzia e prudenza' and 'Un Avertimento.' The education of his illustrious daughter Marie, subsequently Mme. Malibran, was now completed, and under his care she made her debut. [See Malibran.] He then realised the project he had long entertained of founding an opera at New York, and set out with that object from Liverpool, taking with him an Italian company, which included the young Crivelli as tenor, his own son Manuel and Angrisani, De Rosich, Mme. Barbieri, Mme. Garcia, and his daughter. At New York he produced no less than 11 new Italian operas in a single year. In 1827 he went to Mexico, where he brought out 8 operas, all apparently new. After 18 months' stay, he set out to return with the produce of this hard toil; but the party was stopped by brigands, and he was denuded of everything, including nearly £6000 in gold.

Garcia now returned to Paris, where he reappeared at the Italiens. He then devoted himself to teaching; and died June 2, 1832. Garcia was a truly extraordinary person. His energy, resource, and accomplishments may be gathered from the foregoing brief narrative. His singing and acting were remarkable for verve and intelligence. He was a good musician, and wrote with facility and effect, as the list of his works sufficiently shows. Fétis enumerates no less than 17 Spanish, 19 Italian, and 7 French operas. Words and music seem to have been alike easy to him. His most celebrated pupils were his daughters Marie—Mme. Malibran, and Pauline—Mme.Viardot, Mmes. Rimbault, Ruiz-Garcia, Meric-Lalande, Favelli, Comtesse Merlin; Adolphe Nourrit, Géraldy, and his son Manuel Garcia.

Manuel Garcia was born at Madrid, March 17, 1805. His education began early, and at 15 he received instruction in harmony from Fétis, and in singing from his father. In 1825 he accompanied his father to America. Once more in Paris (1829) he quitted the stage, and devoted himself to teaching. A little later he undertook a serious scientific enquiry into the conformation of the vocal organs, the limits of registers, and the mechanism of singing; of which the results were two—(1) his application of the Laryngoscope, the value of which is now universally recognised by physicians and artists, and (2) his 'Mémoire sur la voix humaine,' presented to the French Institut in 1840, which obtained for him the congratulations of the Academy, and may be said to be the foundation of all subsequent investigations into the voice. Appointed professor of singing at the Conservatoire, he published in 1847 his 'Traité complet de l'art du chant, en 2 parties,' 4to, which has been translated into Italian, German, and English, and has gained world-wide reputation. Among his pupils may be mentioned Mmes. Jenny Lind, Catherine Hayes, and Henriette Nissen (afterwards Mme. Saloman), and M. Bataille. In 1850 Garcia resigned his position at the Conservatoire, and came to London. He is still a Professor at the Royal Academy of Music and one of the leading teachers of singing in London. [See also Malibran, and Viardot.]

[ J. M. ]

GARDANE, Antonio, a composer, printer, and publisher of music in Venice from 1538 to 1569. From and after 1557 his name is given as Gardano. After his removal his sons Cipriano and Annibale published a few works, and an Angelo Gardano, whose relationship does not appear, many more. There was an Alessandro in a small way at Rome. The Venice house lasted till 1619. Their publications consist of the Masses, Psalms, Motets, Madrigals, Canzoni, and other compositions, of Archadelt, Jacket, Lasso, Prore, Nannino, and other great Flemish and Italian writers, and fill many volumes. See Eitner, Bibliog. der Sammelwerke, etc.

[ G. ]

GARDINER, William, the son of a stocking manufacturer at Leicester, was born in that town March 15, 1770. He became an assistant to his father in his business, to which he afterwards succeeded, and which he carried on during the rest of his life. But the taste for music never forsook him. His business occasionally required him to visit the continent, and he availed himself of such opportunities to become acquainted with the works of the best foreign composers, particularly of the great German masters, so that for a long period he knew more about their productions, especially those of Beethoven, than the majority of English professors. (See Tnayer, Beethoven, i. 441.) Both at home and abroad he sought and obtained the acquaintance of the best musicians of all ranks, both professors and amateurs. In his youth he composed some songs and duets, which were published as the productions of 'W. G. Leicester.' He next produced, under the title of 'Sacred Melodies,' a selection of pieces by the best masters, chiefly foreign, adapted to English words, which he hoped might be adopted in our churches to the exclusion of the clumsy verses of Sternhold and Hopkins, and Brady and Tate. Six volumes of this work appeared at distant intervals, and it included a volume of selections from the works of English cathedral composers. It must be confessed that the Procrustean plan was followed with the music in order to fit it to the words; yet, notwithstanding, the work had the merit of introducing to the notice of the English public many fine compositions. In 1817 Gardiner added notes to the translation of Beyle's 'Life of Haydn' by Robert Brewin, his fellow townsman, published in conjunction