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artigiana' by Neefe, and 'La Contessina' by Hiller. He also composed much church music, which Mozart thought more of than of his operas (Letter, Feb. 5, 1783). When at Leipsic, he said to Doles, who could not quite join in his praises, 'Papa, if you only knew all we have of his in Vienna! As soon as I get back I shall study him in earnest, and hope to learn a great deal.' Gassmann cannot be said to have exercised any special influence on the developement of musical form effected during his time by Emanuel Bach, Haydn, and Mozart. His best pupil was Salieri, who after their father's death educated Gassmann's daughters as opera-singers.

[ F. G. ]

GASTOLDI, Giovanni Giacomo, born at Caravaggio about the middle of the 16th century; maestro di capella in Mantua, and later in Milan (1592). He was the author of 'Balletti da suonare, cantare, e ballare' (Venice 1591–5; Antwerp 1596), which are said to have served Morley as models for his 'Ballets or Fal las.' Two of them are well known to English amateurs under the names of 'Maidens fair of Mantua's city,' and 'Soldiers brave and gallant be.' Two others, 'Viver lieto voglio,' and 'A lieta vita,' are given by Burney in his History of Music. These were adopted as Hymn tunes by Lindemann in 1597 to the words 'Jesu, wollst uns weisen,' and 'In dir ist Freude' respectively (Doring, Choralkunde, 45).

[ F. G. ]

GATES, Bernard. Second son of Bernard Gates of Westminster, Gent. Born probably in 1685; is mentioned in 1702 as one of the Children of the Chapel Royal; was made a Gentleman of the same in 1708 in place of John Howell, who died July 15, and Master of the Choristers, Michaelmas 1740, vice J. Church; resided in James Street, Westminster. In 1758 he retired to North Aston, Oxon, where he died, Nov. 15, 1773, aged 88 [App. p.646 "in his 88th year"]. He was buried in the North Cloister at Westminster, 'near his wife and daughter.' He held the sinecure office, now abolished, of Tuner of the Regals in the King's household—see his epitaph at Aston.

His chief claim to mention is his connexion with Handel, whose 'Esther' was acted under Gates's care by the Children of the Chapel Royal at his house Feb. 23, 1732, and afterwards at the King's Theatre, Haymarket. He also sang one of the airs in the Dettingen Te Deum on its first performance.

[ G. ]

GAUNTLETT, Henry John, eldest son of the Rev. Henry Gauntlett, was born in 1806 at Wellington, Salop. He was educated by his father, and at an early age evinced an aptitude for music, especially for playing on the organ. His father was presented to the vicarage of Olney, Bucks, and there, at the age of nine, young Gauntlett entered on the duties of his first organist appointment. In 1826 he was articled to a solicitor. During his clerkship he pursued the study of law and music with equal assiduity, and in 1827 obtained the post of organist of St. Olave's, Southwark, which he held for upwards of 20 years. In 1831 he was admitted a solicitor, and commenced practice in the City of London in partnership with a brother. About 1836, having attained a high reputation as an organist, he commenced his advocacy of a reform in organ building by the adoption of the C organ in the place of the old F and G instruments. He met with the strongest opposition, but finding a valuable auxiliary in William Hill, the organ builder (who, under his superintendence constructed the organs in St. Luke's, Cheetham, Manchester; St. Peter's, Cornhill; Ashton-under-Lyne church; Dr. Raffles' chapel, Liverpool; and St. John's, Calcutta; and reconstructed the large organs in Birmingham Town Hall, and Christ Church, Newgate Street), he attained his aim, and through his exertions the C organ was firmly settled in England. In 1836 he became organist of Christ Church, Newgate Street. In 1842 Dr. Howley, Archbishop of Canterbury, conferred on him the degree of Doctor of Music. About the same time he gave up the law and devoted himself wholly to music. In the year 1844 Gauntlett, in conjunction with Charles Child Spencer, drew attention to the subject of Gregorian music by the publication of the Hymnal for Matins and Evensong (Bell & Daldy). He took an active part in promoting the extension of choral worship, and composed many chants and anthems. With equal ardour he laboured to increase the study of the works of Handel, Bach, Beethoven, Spohr and Mendelssohn, publishing arrangements of the choral and instrumental fugues of Bach; Beethoven's choral works; Cherubini's ditto; the Overtures and Choruses in Spohr's 'Crucifixion,' etc., for the organ, with pedals. But it is as a composer and editor of psalm and hymn tunes that he will be best remembered. For upwards of 40 years he worked in that field with unwearied enthusiasm, and there was scarcely a publication of any note issued during that period in which he was not engaged as editor, assistant, or contributor. Gauntlett also appeared as a lecturer on music and as a critic and reviewer, and able articles from his pen, abounding in learning and spirit (the opinions confidently expressed), will be found in the first 6 volumes of 'The Musical World,' in 'The Morning Post,' 'The Orchestra,' and 'The Church Musician.' After quitting St. Olave's and Christ Church, Gauntlett was successively organist of a church at Kensington Park, of Union Chapel, Islington (for 13 years), and of St. Bartholomew the Great, Smithfield. He was chosen by Mendelssohn to play the organ part in his oratorio, 'Elijah,' on its production at Birmingham, Aug. 26, 1846. He died suddenly, from heart disease, Feb. 21, 1876.

Gauntlett's principal publications, besides those mentioned, were 'The Church Hymn and Tune Book' (with Rev. W. J. Blew), 1844–51; Cantus Melodici, 1845; 'The Comprehensive Tune Book' (with Kearns), 1846–7; 'The Hallelujah' (with Rev. J. J. Waite), 1848–55; 'The Congregational Psalmist' (with Dr. Allon),