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Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/630

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Backers, Factor et Inventor, Jermyn St. London, 1776.' His action, since known as the 'English Action,' is shown in the drawing to Stodart's patent of 1777, already referred to, for coupling a piano with a harpsichord. It is the same in the principle of the escapement as that of Cristofori, 1711.

There is no reference in Mozart's letters to the shape of the pianos he played upon, those of Spaett or Stein for example. The one preserved in the Mozarteum at Salzburg, made by Walter of Vienna, is a grand, and the date attributed to it is 1780. It was Stein's grand action that became subsequently known as the 'Viennese,' and we should derive it from Silbermann's [App. p.654 "the actions here referred to are different. [See Pianoforte.]"] could we trust implicitly the drawings in Welcker von Gontershausen's 'Der Clavierbau' (Frankfort 1870). The probability is that Stein submitted this action to Mozart, and that it was the one so much approved of by him (Letter, Oct. 17, 1777).

According to Fétis the first grand piano made in France was by Sebastian Erard in 1796, and it was on the English model. But Erard's London patent for one was earlier, being dated 1794, and the drawing was allied rather to Silbermann's idea [App. p.654 replace with "to an early German action (not Schroeter's model) improved upon by Stein"]. Perhaps the instrument was not made. The difference introduced into Pianoforte playing by the continued use of the very different grand actions of London and Vienna, has been explained by Hummel in his Pianoforte School. Sebastian Erard set himself the problem of his famous Repetition Action apparently to combine the advantages of both. The Viennese action is still adhered to in Austria for the cheaper grands, but the English (Broadwood) and French (Erard) actions are used for the better classes, and their various modifications occupy the rest of the field of grand piano making in other countries. The enormous advance due to the introduction of iron into the structure of the instrument began with James Shudi Broadwood's tension bars in 1808 [App. p.654 replace with "Allen's tubes and plates, patented in 1820"]: the latest development we enjoy in the magnificent concert grands of contemporary makers. [See Cristofori and Pianoforte.]

[ A. J. H. ]

GRAND PRIX DE ROME. The Académie des Beaux Arts, a branch of the Institut de France, holds annual competitive examinations in painting, sculpture, engraving, architecture, and music. The successful candidates become pensioners of the government for a period of four years, and as such are sent to Rome, where they reside at the Villa Medici, in the 'Académie de France' founded by Louis XIV in 1666. Hence the term 'Grand prix de Rome' is applied to those musicians who have obtained the first prize for composition at the Institut de France. The Prize was established on the reorganisation of the Institut in 1803. The judges consist of six musician-members of the Institut who belong to the Académie, and three of the most eminent composers of the day. The competition takes place in May or June. The prize composition was originally a cantata for one voice and orchestra; subsequently for one male and one female voice; but for the last forty years three characters have been required, and it has now attained to the importance of a one-act opera. The libretto is also furnished by competition, in which distinguished writers often take part; while the most popular singers take pleasure in performing these first compositions of the young aspirants. In the event of no composition proving worthy of the Prize, it stands over till the next year, when two may be adjudged (see 1805, 1819, etc.).

We append a complete list of the musicians who have gained this gratifying and eagerly coveted distinction; adding the titles of their cantatas, and, where obtainable, the dates of birth and death.

1803. Androt (1781–1804). 'Alcyone.'
1804. No first prize.
1805. Dourlen. and Gasse (1788–) 'Cupidon pleurant Psyché.'
1806. Bouteiller (1788–18 ). 'Héro et L'eandre.'
1807. No first prize.
1808. Blondeau. 'Marie Stuart.'
1809. Daussoigne (1790–1875). 'Agar dans le désert.'
1810. Beaulieu (1791–1863). 'Héro.'
1811. Chelard. ' Ariane.'
1812. Hérold. 'La Duchesse de la Vallière.'
1813. Panseron. 'Herminie.'
1814. Roll (1788–). 'Atala.'
1815. Benoist (1795). 'Œnone.'
1816. No first prize.
1817. Batton (1797–1855). 'La mort d'Adonis.'
1818. No first prize.
1819. Halévy, and Massin-Turina (1793–). 'Herminie.'
1820. Leborne (1797–1866). 'Sophonisbe.'
1821. Rifaut (1798–1838). 'Diane.'
1822. Lebourgeois (1799–1824). 'Geneviève de Brabant.'
1823. Boilly (1799–), and Ermel (1798–1871). 'Pyrame et Thisbe.'
1824. Barbereau. 'Agnès Sorel.'
1825. Guillion (1801–1854). 'Ariane dans l'ile de Naxos'.
1826. Paris (1801–66). 'Herminie.'
1827. J. B. Guiraud {1804–). 'Orphée.'
1828. Ross-Despréaux (1803–). 'Herminie.'
1829. No first prize.
1830. Berlioz, and Montfort. 'Sardanapale.'
1831. Prévost. 'Bianca Capello.'
1832. A. Thomas. 'Hermann et Ketty.'
1833. Thys. 'Le Contrebandier espagnol.'
1834. Elwart {1808–77). 'L'entrée en loge.'
1835. Boulanger (1815). 'Achille.'
1836. Boisselot (1811). 'Velléda.'
1837. L. D. Besozzi. 'Marie Stuart et Rizzio.'
1838. Bousquet (1818–54). 'La Vendetta.'
1839. Gounod. 'Fernand.'
1840. Bazin (1816). 'Loyse de Montfort.'
1841. Malliart. 'Lionel Foscari.'
1842. Roger (1814–). 'La reine Flore.'
1843. No first prize.
1844. Massé, and Renaud da Vilback. 'Le Renégat.'
1845. No first prize.
1846. Gastinel. 'Velasquez.'
1847. Deffés (1819). 'L'Ange et Tobie.'
1848. Duprato (1827). 'Damoclés.'
1849. No first prize.
1850. Chariot (1827–71). 'Emma et Eginhard.'
1851. Delehelle (1826). 'Le Prisonnier.'
1852. Léonce Cohen (1830). 'Le Retour de Virginie.'
1853. Galibert (1826–58). 'Le rocher d'Appenzell.'
1854. Barthe (1828). 'Francesca di Rimini.'
1855. Conte (1830). 'Acis et Galatée.'
1856. No first prize.
1857. Bizet (1838–75), and Charles Colin. 'Clovis et Clotilde.'
1858. David (1836). 'Jephté.'
1859. Eugène [App. p.654 corrects to "Ernest"] Guiraud. 'Bajazet et le joueur de flûte.'
1860. Paladilhe. 'Le Czar Ivan IV.'
1861. Dubois (1837–). 'Atala.'
1862. Bourgault-Ducoudray (1840–). 'Louise de Mézières.'
1863. Massenet. 'David Rizzio.'
1864. Sieg. 'Ivanhoe.'
1865. Lenepven. 'Renaud dans let jardins d'Armide.'
1866. Emile Pessard. 'Dalila.'
1867. No first prize.
1868. Wintzweiller (1844–70), and Rabuteau. 'Daniel.'
1869. Taudou. 'Françoise de Rimini.'
1870. Maréchal, and Ch. Lefebvre 'Le Jugement de Dieu.'
1871. Serpette. 'Jeanne d' Arc.'
1872. Salvayre. 'Calypso.'
1873. Paul Puget. 'Mazeppa.'
1874. Ehrhart {1854–75). 'Acis et Galatée.'
1875. Wonnser. 'Clytemnestre.'
1876. Hillemacher. and P. V. de la Nux. 'Judith.'
1877. No first prize.

The successful cantata is performed at the annual séance of the Académie des Beaux Arts at the Institut, usually in October; it has sometimes been sung in costume at the Opera. A few of the cantatas have been engraved, but the greater part are unpublished. At the instance of the writer of this article, and by his endeavours, the whole of the autographs of these interesting compositions have been deposited in the Library of the Conservatoire in Paris, under the title of 'Fonds des Prix de Rome.'

[ G. C. ]

[App. p.654 adds: "The following list completes the number of composers who have gained the prize since the publication of the article in vol. i. p. 618, until the present time:—

1878. Broutin and Rousseau. 'La Fille de Jephté.'
1879. Hue. 'Médés.'
1880. Hillemacher (Lucien). 'Fingal.'
1881. No first prize.
1882. Marty and Piernè. 'Edith.'
1883. Vidal. 'Le Gladiateur.'
1884. Debussy. 'L'Enfant prodigue.'
1885. Leroux. 'Endymion.'
1886. Savard. 'La Vision de Saül.
1887. Charpentier. 'Didon.'

After the year 1803 the competition for the Grand Prix de Rome was decided by the Institut. In 1864 it was modified by a decree of Napoleon III: from 1864 to 1871 the works were judged by a special jury composed of nine members drawn by lot from a list chosen by the general superintendent of theatres. Since 1872 the final judgment has been restored to the united sections of the Académie des Beaux Arts; and the method of procedure is as follows:—The six composers forming the musical section of the Institut (now represented by MM. Thomas, Gounod, Reyer, Massenet, Saint-Saëns, and Delibes), assisted by three composers not belonging to the above-mentioned body, give a previous verdict which the entire Académie has to ratify or veto. The competition takes place in June, and the performance of the prize cantata in October, at the annual public séance of the Académie des Beaux Arts.

[ A. J. ]

GRANDSIRE. The name given to one of the methods by which changes in ringing are