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produced. It is supposed to be the original method. [See Change Ringing.]

GRANJON, Robert. Born about the beginning of the 16th century at Paris, a type-founder who was one of the first to introduce round notes instead of square and lozenge-shaped ones, and at the same time to suppress the ligatures and signs of proportion, which made the notation of the old music so difficult to read—and thus to simplify the art. His efforts, however, appear to have met with little or no success. His first publications are said to be dated 1523, and the first work printed on his new system, 1559, at which time he had left Paris for Lyons; he was at Rome in 1582, where he printed the first edition of Guidetti's Directorium, having been called to Rome by the Pope in order to out the capital letters of a Greek alphabet.

Whether he or Briard of Bar-le-duc was the first to make the improvements mentioned above is uncertain. Briard's Carpentras (printed in the new style) was published at Avignon in 1532, but Granjon appears to have made his invention and obtained letters patent for it many years before he had an opportunity of exercising it. See Fétis for more details.

[ G. ]

GRANOM, Lewis C. A., a composer who flourished about the middle of the 18th century, and produced many songs and pieces which were popular in their day. His first work was 'Twelve Sonatas for the Flute,' published in 1751. He afterwards published 'Six Trios for the Flute,' 1755, and a collection entitled 'The Monthly Miscellany,' consisting of duets for flutes, songs, etc. His 'Second Collection of 40 favourite English Songs, with string accompaniments, in score; dedicated to Dr.Boyce,' bears the opus number xiii. Nothing is known of his biography.

[ W. H. H. ]

GRAS, Madame Julie Aimee Dorus, whose family name was Steenkiste, was born at Valenciennes in 1807 [App. p.654 "Sept. 7, 1804"]. Dorus was the name of her mother. She was the daughter of the leader of the band, and educated by her father. At the age of 14 she made a début in a concert with such success as to obtain a subsidy from the authorities to enable her to study at the Conservatoire of Paris. There she was admitted Dec. 21, 1821; and received instruction from Henri and Blangini. With a good voice and much facility of execution, she obtained the first prize in 1822. Paër and Bordogni then helped to finish her education. To the former she owed her appointment as chamber-singer to the king. In 1825 she began her travels, going to Brussels first, where she sang with such success as to receive proposals for the opera. She now gave six months to study for the stage, and made a brilliant début. After the revolution of 1830 she went to the opera at Paris, and made her first appearance in the 'Comte Ory' with great applause. On the retirement [App. p.654 "from the Grand Opera"] of Mme. Damoreau-Cinti (1835) Mlle. Dorus succeeded to the principal parts in 'La Muette,' 'Guillaume Tell,' 'Fernand Cortez,' etc. She had already created the rôles of Thérésina in 'Le Philtre,' of Alice in 'Robert le Diable,' and the page in 'Gustave'. In 1839 she visited London, where she had a very warm reception. Having married M. Gras, one of the principal violins at the Opéra, April 9, 1833, Mlle. Dorus for some years kept her maiden-name on the stage. The management of the theatre having passed into the hands of M. Stolz, she had the mortification to see her chief parts given to Mme. Stolz, and consequently retired in 1845. She continued however, to sing occasionally in Paris and in the provinces. In 1847 she reappeared in London, and renewed her former triumphs; as she did again in 1848 and 9, singing in the latter year Auber's Italianised 'Masaniello.' In 1850–1 Mme. Dorus-Gras remained in Paris, singing in a few concerts; but since then her artistic career has ended.

[ J. M. ]

GRASSET, Jean-Jacques, a distinguished violin-player, born at Paris about 1769. He was a pupil of Berthaume, and is reported to have excelled by a clear, though not powerful tone, correct intonation and technique. After having been obliged to serve in the army for several years—which he appears to have spent not without profit for his art in Germany and Italy—he returned to Paris and soon gained a prominent position there. On the death of Gaviniés in 1800 he was appointed professor of the violin at the Conservatoire, after a highly successful competition with a number of eminent performers. Soon afterwards he succeeded Bruni as 'chef d'orchestre' at the Italian Opera, which post he filled with eminent success till 1829, when he retired from public life. He published three Concertos for the Violin, five books of Violin-Duos, and a Sonata for Piano and Violin, which are not without merit. He died at Paris in 1839.

[ P. D. ]

GRASSHOPPER or HOPPER, in a square or upright pianoforte of ordinary London make, is that part of the action known technically as the escapement lever or jack, so constructed with base mortised into the key and back piece, that it may be taken out or replaced with the key, without disturbing the rest of the mechanism. There is a regulating screw perforating the jack, tongue, or fly, as it is variously called, of the grasshopper, drilled into the backpiece and bearing a leather button, the position of which and the pressure of a spring determine the rake of the jack, and consequently the rise and rebound of the hammer; the rebound being further regulated by a contrivance attached to the jack, when not an independent member, and used for checking or arresting it after the blow. In grand pianofortes, and in upright ones with crank lever actions, the escapement apparatus is less easily detached from the action.

It is not recorded by whom the Grasshopper was introduced, although the escapement part of it existed in Cristofori's 'linguetta mobile'; but the tradition which attributes it to Longman and Broderip, pianoforte makers in London, and predecessors of the firm of Clementi and Collard, may be relied upon. John Geib patented in