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strument: done by his brother, William Holborne.' It is dedicated to Thomas, Lord Burgh, Baron Gainsburghe. In the Preface the author Bays he was induced to publish these early works, in consequence of some stranger having put forth corrupt copies of them. 'The Cittharn Schoole' contains 32 pieces (preludes, pavans, galliards, popular song tunes, etc.) for the cittharn alone, in tableture; 23 others for the cittharn with an accompaniment, in ordinary notation, for bass viol; and 2 more for the cittharn, with accompaniments for treble, tenor and bass viola. The 6 'Aers' by William Holborne are stated to be 'the first fruites of Composition' done by him. The second of them speaks of 'Bonny Boots' as dead, agreeing in that respect with one of Morley's 'Canzonets, or, Little Short Aers to five and sixe voices,' published in the same year. 'The Cittharn Schoole' was unnoticed prior to 1847, when Dr. Rimbault partially described it in his 'Bibliotheca Madrigaliana,' from a copy, presumably unique, then in his possession, but since 1857 in the library of the Sacred Harmonic Society. Commendatory Verses by Antony Holborne are prefixed to Farnaby's Canzonets, 1598; and Robert Dowland's 'Musicall Bauqvet,' 1610, contains 'My heavy sprite,' a duet with lute accompaniment by him.

[ W. H. H. ]

HOLCOMBE, Henry, born about 1690, probably at Salisbury, where he was a chorister. He came to London while a boy, and sang in the Anglo-Italian operas at Drury Lane as Prenesto in 'Camilla' (1706, 8), and the Page in 'Rosamond' (1707). On the breaking of his voice he left the stage and became a teacher of the harpsichord and singing, in which he was very successful. He died about 1750. Holcombe published two collections of songs, viz. 'The Musical Medley; or, A Collection of English Songs and Cantatas set to Musick,' 1745, and 'The Garland; a Collection of 11 Songs and Cantatas.' Two of his songs—'Happy hour' (printed in the 'Musical Miscellany '), and 'Arno's Vale,' were much sung in their time. Among his descendants we may name Miss M. Josephine Holcombe, a distinguished soprano singer of church music in Brooklyn, New York, and Philip G. Holcombe, Harp-maker, London.

[ W. H. H. ]

HOLDER, Joseph William, Mus. Bac., born in St. John's, Clerkenwell, in 1764, and educated in the Chapel Royal under Dr. Nares. After quitting the choir he became assistant to Reinhold, organist of St. George the Martyr, Queen Square. He next obtained the poet of organist of St. Mary's Church, Bungay, which he held for many years, after which he removed to the vicinity of Chelmsford. He took his degree of Bachelor of Music at Oxford in Dec. 1792, his exercise being an anthem, the score of which is preserved in the Bodleian Library. Holder's compositions consist of a mass, anthems, glees (three collections published), canons, songs and pianoforte pieces, including arrangements of many of Handel's choruses. Holder claimed descent by the father's side from Cardinal Wolsey. He died in 1832.

[ W. H. H. ]

HOLDER, Rev. William, D.D., born in Nottinghamshire about 1614, and educated at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, became, in 1642, Rector of Blechindon, Oxfordshire. He took the degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1660. He was afterwards appointed Canon of Ely and Canon of St. Paul's. On Sept. 2, 1674, he was sworn Sub-dean of the Chapel Royal, which office he resigned before Christmas 1689, and he was also Sub-almoner to the King. He was author of 'A Treatise on the Natural Grounds and Principles of Harmony,' 1694; 2nd edit. 1701, a very able work, written chiefly for the service of the gentlemen of the Chapel Royal. An Evening Service in C and two anthems by him are in the Tudway Collection (Harl. MSS. 7338 & 7339). Dr. Holder died at his residence in Amen Corner, Jan. 24, 1697.

[ W. H. H. ]

HOLDICH, George Maydwell, established an organ factory in London in 1838. He is the builder of the organs of Lichfield Cathedral, St. Paul's, Brighton, and others.

[ V. de P. ]

HOLMES, Alfred, born in London, Nov. 9, 1837, son of Thomas Holmes, of Lincoln, a self-taught man, was at the age of 7 initiated by his father in the practice of violin playing. With no other instruction than that of his parent and Spohr's 'Violin School,' he soon became distinguished, and especially noted for the performance of duets with his younger brother, Henry. At a later period their father made them study the classic French school of Rode, Baillot, and Kreutzer. When about 10 years of age Alfred became principal soprano boy at the Oratory, then newly established in King William Street, Strand, in the building theretofore the Lowther Rooms, and now the Folly Theatre. On July 13, 1847, the two brothers made their first appearance in public at the Haymarket Theatre at the benefit of F. Webster, and played Auber's overture to 'Masaniello,' arranged as a violin duet. They did not again appear in public until 1853, in the summer of which year they played at a concert at the Beethoven Rooms, assisted by W. H. Webb, Piatti, and Lindsay Sloper. In 1855 they made their first visit to the continent and went to Brussels, where they remained for several months performing with great success. In 1856 they visited Wiesbaden, Frankfort, Darmstadt, Leipsic, Mayence, and Cassel. In 1857 they went to Vienna; after that to Sweden, where they remained for two years, and then to Copenhagen in 1860 and Amsterdam in 1861, meeting everywhere with great success. In 1864 Alfred Holmes settled in Paris, where in 1866 he established a quartet party. In 1867 he made a tour in Belgium, Holland, Germany, and Russia. At St. Petersburg he produced his 'Jeanne d'Arc,' symphony with solos and chorus, which was performed for the first time in England at the Crystal Palace, Feb. 27, 1875. Returning to Paris he gave some fragments of a symphony called 'The Youth of Shakspere,' and an opera, 'Inez de Castro.' He afterwards produced two symphonies entitled 'Robin Hood' and 'The Siege of