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course of science in Spain was quite independent of that in Persia. While wending our way westward to Cordova, we must stop in Egypt long enough to observe that there, too, scientific activity was rekindled. Not Alexandria, but Cairo with its library and observatory, was now the home of learning. Foremost among her scientists ranked Ben Junus (died 1008), a contemporary of Abul Wefa. He solved some difficult problems in spherical trigonometry. Another Egyptian astronomer was Ibn Al Haitam (died 1038), who wrote on geometric loci. Travelling westward, we meet in Morocco Abul Hasan Ali, whose treatise 'on astronomical instruments' discloses a thorough knowledge of the Conics of Apollonius. Arriving finally in Spain at the capital, Cordova, we are struck by the magnificent splendour of her architecture. At this renowned seat of learning, schools and libraries were founded during the tenth century.

Little is known of the progress of mathematics in Spain. The earliest name that has come down to us is Al Madshriti (died 1007), the author of a mystic paper on 'amicable numbers.' His pupils founded schools at Cordova, Dania, and Granada. But the only great astronomer among the Saracens in Spain is Gabir ben Aflah of Sevilla, frequently called Geber. He lived in the second half of the eleventh century. It was formerly believed that he was the inventor of algebra, and that the word algebra came from 'Gabir' or 'Geber.' He ranks among the most eminent astronomers of this time, but, like so many of his contemporaries, his writings contain a great deal of mysticism. His chief work is an astronomy in nine books, of which the first is devoted to trigonometry. In his treatment of spherical trigonometry, he exercises great independence of thought. He makes war against the time-honoured procedure adopted by Ptolemy of applying "the rule of six quantities," and gives a new way of his own, based on the 'rule of four