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German novelists. His later novels are weighted with his Pantheistic philosophy, and were less popular. There have been several collected editions of his forty novels and many biographical studies (of which the best, perhaps, is by L. Bettelheim). D. Feb. 8, 1882.

Aulard, Professor Francois Victor Alphonse, French historian. B. July 19, 1849. Ed. École Normale Superieure, Paris. Aulard taught at Nimes, Nice, and various other places until 1885, when he was appointed professor of the history of the Revolution at the Sorbonne (the Paris University). Since 1881 he has devoted himself to the study of the Revolution, on which he is the highest living authority, as well as one of the most eminent of French historians. Since 1887 he has edited La Revolution Française. He is an Officer of the Legion of Honour, and President of the Société de l'histoire de la Revolution, the Commission Supérieure des Memoires, and the Mission Laique Française. Professor Aulard is a thorough and devoted Rationalist. He has authoritatively demolished clerical legends of the Revolution, such as the story that a prostitute impersonated the Goddess of Reason (Le culte de la raison et le culte de l'Êire Supréme, 1892), and has taken an active part in the struggle against the Church. In 1900 he edited a collection of strong anti-clerical speeches by Paul Bert (Le cléricalisme) and contributed an out spoken preface.

Austin, Charles, M.A., lawyer. B. 1799. Ed. Bury St. Edmunds and Cam bridge. In 1822 he won the Hulsean Prize for an essay on Christian evidence, though he had already rejected Christianity. He had at the University warmly espoused the views of Jeremy Bentham, and had a good deal of influence in propagating them, as he was one of the most brilliant talkers of a very able group. Called to the bar in 1827, he maintained his high social prestige in London, and was so successful a barrister that he is said to have made 100,000 in one year. He became Q.C. in 1841, and retired with a large fortune in 1848. Sir John Macdonell describes him as " the forensic equal of Follett and Scarlett, and the most eloquent disciple of Bentham" (Dict. Nat. Biog.). After his retirement he served as High Steward of Ipswich and Chairman of the East Suffolk Quarter Sessions. He became more conservative and outwardly con formed with Church practice; but, as Sir J. Macdonell quotes from a friend of his, "he accepted the religion of his country in the manner sanctioned by Elisha and practised by Socrates." D. Dec. 21, 1874.

Austin, John, jurist, brother of the preceding. B. Mar ..3, 1790. John Austin served in the army for five years before he took up the study of law. He was an intimate friend of Bentham and James Mill, and was at first an Atheist like them. In 1826 he was appointed professor of jurisprudence at University College, but he resigned in 1832, not finding it suitable work. In the same year he published his chief work, The Province of Jurisprudence, which " helped to revolutionize jurisprudence " (says Sir J. Macdonell in the D. N. B.). In her Three Generations of English Women (1893) his granddaughter, Janet Ross, includes a sketch of him by his friend Barthélemy St. Hilaire, who says that he in later years modified his "irreligion" (or became a Theist), but never went to church. D. Dec., 1859.

Austin, Sarah, writer. B. 1793. She was of the Taylor family, of Norwich, and, marrying John Austin in 1820, lived in the Mill-Bentham circle for many years. She translated many French and German authors (including Goethe and Ranke), wrote Germany from 1760 to 1814 (1854), and was familiar with Guizot, Cousin, Carlyle, and other eminent thinkers. She disclaimed the title of Unitarian (Life of W. J. Fox, by E. Garnett, p. 125), and was an impersonal Theist. To Victor Cousin