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Shakespeare into Swedish (6 vols., 1879-87), and has written on the philosophies of Hume, Spinoza, and Feuerbach. In his own views he chiefly follows Feuerbach, of whom he is a great admirer. He has edited Fetierbach s works (1903) and letters (1904). His advanced Rationalism often drew upon him the attention of the re actionary Russian authorities before the Revolution.


BOLIVAR, Simon, President of Bolivia. B. July 25, 1783. Ed. Madrid. Bolivar, on completing his studies, travelled exten sively in Europe and then in the United States. He developed advanced views on religion and politics, and devoted himself to freeing South America from its Spanish priests and politicians. First he organized a rebellion in Venezuela, and succeeded in driving out the Spaniards. In 1819 he was chosen first President of the new Republic of Columbia. In 1824 the Peruvians appointed him Dictator, and the southern part of Peru was converted into the Republic of Bolivia, of which he was the first President. His stern methods created many enemies, who united against him with the clericals, and in 1828 he was forced to deal drastically with a conspiracy against his life. He was compelled to retire in 1829, and he took his life in the following year. In 1842 the Bolivians brought back his remains to their capital, and buried them with great honour. D. Dec. 10, 1830.

BOLSCHE, Wilhelm, German writer. B. Jan. 2, 1861. Ed. Cologne, Bonn, and Paris Universities (in philosophy, science, and art). Bolsche has been engaged since 1885 in independent literary work, espe cially for the popularization of the doctrine of evolution. He has edited Goethe, Humboldt, Novalis, Heine, etc., and has written between forty and fifty volumes, which are not less admirable for their high 89

literary art than for their wide and accurate erudition. The chief original work is, perhaps, Das Liebesleben in der Natur (2 vols., 1898 and 1900). His fine study of the life and views of Professor Haeckel has been translated into English (Haeckel, 1906). He is one of the most brilliant and popular of the Monistic writers of Germany.

BOLZANO, Professor Bernard, Aus trian mathematician. B. Oct. 5, 1781. Ed. Prague University. Bolzano entered the Roman Catholic clergy in 1805, and was appointed professor of the science of religions at Prague University. In 1820 he was deposed and suspended by the Catholic authorities for heresy, and he retired to private literary work. He con tinued to call himself a Christian in a liberal sense of the word but he belonged to no Church, and was rather a Theist. He was a mathematician of great distinc tion, and is regarded by many as one of the founders of the modern science. D. Dec. 18, 1848.

BONAPARTE, Prince Jerome, youngest brother of Napoleon I. B. Nov. 15, 1784. Ed. College de Juilly (Paris). He entered the navy and became a commander. During a visit to the United States he married Eliza Paterson (1803), but Napoleon declared the marriage invalid. Jerome submitted, and became an admiral, later a general and prince. In 1807 he was created King of Westphalia, and his rule was enlightened and able. He was a gifted man, though never in favour with Napoleon. After Waterloo he lived in Italy and Switzerland until 1848, when he returned to France, became President of the Senate, and directed his nephew (Napoleon III). P. de la Garce says in his Histoire du Second Empire (1894) that Jerome " cherished a systematic hostility to every religious creed in general and the Catholic religion in particular " (I, 119). He tried in vain to break the fatal alliance of the Second Empire with the Church. D. June 24, 1860. 90