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works), and he wrote also on political economy. Verliere describes him in his Guide du Libre Penseur as an advanced Deist. D. Aug. 5, 1868.

BOUGAINVILLE, Count Louis Antoine

de, F.E.S., French traveller. B. Nov. 11, 1729. He made brilliant studies in mathe matics, and published a Traite du Calcul Integral (2 vols., 1752 and 1756), which became famous. He also studied law and served in the French army. At the close of the war in 1763 he embarked on a long voyage, and he was the first Frenchman to travel round the globe (Voyage Autour du Monde, 1771). He wanted the French Government to equip him for an expedition to the North Pole, and when it refused he sent his plans to the London Eoyal Society, which made use of them and admitted him as a Fellow. Bougainville was appointed Marshal in 1779 and Vice-Admiral in 1791. Napoleon made him a Count and Senator. He was a Deist. D. Aug. 31, 1811.

BOUGLE, Professor Charles, French sociologist. Ed. Ecole Normale Superieure, and in Germany. In 1894 he became professor of philosophy at the Lyc6e Saint- Brieux, in 1898 at Montpellier, and in 1900 at Toulouse. He is now professor of the history of social economy at the Sorbonne. In 1900 he published a series of lectures, Pour la Democratie Frangaise, in which he severely criticizes the clericals and expresses a moderate Eationalism. Professor Bougl6 has won a high position among European sociologists.

BOUILLIER, Francisque, Ph.D., French philosophical writer. B. July 12, 1813. Ed. College Stanislas (Paris) and Ecole Normale. He was professor of philosophy at Orleans (1839) and Lyons (1841), and later Director of the Ecole Normale Superieure at Lyons and inspector- general of the University. He was also a member of the Institut and of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences. Bouillier was a Eationalist of the philosophical- 97

spiritual school (see his Theorie de la raison impersonelle, 1845, etc.), and he translated Kant and Fichte. D. 1899.

BOULAINYILLIERS, Henri de, Count de St. Saire, French historian. B. Oct. 11, 1658. Ed. College de Juilly, Paris. He served for some years in the army, then devoted himself to historical research, and wrote a number of works in which credulity and criticism are incongruously mingled. His Essai de Metaphysique dans les Principes de B. de Spinoza (published 1731) purports to be a refutation, but is a timid acceptance, of the philosophy of Spinoza. His Vie de Mahomet (1730) was the first European work to speak tolerantly of the founder of Mohammedanism. D. Jan. 23, 1722.

BOULANGER, Nicolas Antoine,

Encyclopaedist. B. Nov. 11, 1722. Ed. College de Beauvais. After studying mathematics and architecture he served as an engineer in the army, and then entered the civil service. He retired in 1758 and lived at the chateau of Helvetius, writing various articles toi tiieDictionnaireEncyclo- pedique. Boulanger studied Hebrew and Syriac in order to be able to refute Genesis. Some of the anti-Christian works to which his name was attached after his death were probably written by Holbach and others. D. Sep. 16, 1759.

BOURGEOIS, Leon Victor Auguste,

French statesman. B. May 29, 1851. Ed. Lycee Charlemagne (law). In 1882 he became Prefet du Tarn ; in 1885, Prefet de la Haute Garonne ; and in 1887, head of the Paris police. He entered the French Chambre in 1888, and became Under secretary in the Ministry of the Interior. In 1890 he was Minister of Public Instruc tion, 1892 Minister of Justice, 1896 Pre sident du Conseil and Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1898 Minister of Public Instruction, 1899 first French delegate at the Hague Conference, 1902-1903 President of the Chambre of Deputies, 1905 Senator, and

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