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Nominative. La patr-o, the father. La patr-o-j, the fathers.
Genitive. De la patr-o, of the father. De la patr-o-j, of the fathers.
Dative. Al la patr-o, to the father. Al la patr-o-j, to the fathers.
Objective. La patr-o-n, the father. La patr-o-j-n, the fathers.
Ablative. Kun la patr-o, with the father. Kun la patr-o-j, with the fathers.

3. Adjectives are formed by suffixing “a” to the root; they take the same changes for case and number as the substantives. The comparative degree is made by prefixing “pli” (more), the superlative by “plej” (most). The word “than,” after a comparison, is to be translated by “ol,” thus, pli blank-a ol negh-o, more white than snow.

4. Numeral cardinal adjectives are not declinable; they are unu (1), du (2), tri (3), kvar (4), kvin (5), ses (6), sep (7), ok (8), naû; (9) and dek (10), cent (100), mil (1000). The ten and hundreds are made by the simple union of the first ten cardinals; thus, kvin-cent (500), tri-dek (30), dek-ok-cent ok-dek ok: is 1888, etc., etc.

Ordinal numerals are formed by means of the adjective termination, “a;” thus, kvar-a, fourth.

Multiplicative numerals take the suffix obl-a; thus, tri-obl-a, triple. For numerals that designate fractions “on” is to be added; thus, kvar-on-a, the fourth part.

Collective numerals end in “op;” thus, kvar-op-e, by fours.

Distributive numerals prefix “po.”

Adverbial nouns can be formed from cardinal numerals; thus, unu-o (unity), du-e (secondly), kvar-on-e (the fourth).

5. Pronouns.

(a) The personal are:

Mi, I or me. Ni, we or us.
Vi, you, thou, thee.
Li, he or him. Ili, they or them
Shi, she or her.
Ghi, it.
Si, oneself. Oni, they (indefinite, as in they say. The French “on.”)