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our. Soon all the principal cities of Italy had imitated it, and this confirms our previous statement that, apart from its "pastorellerie", or affected sylvan note, the Arcadian movement marked a positive advance in the reformation of literature. Noblemen, ecclesiastics, and laymen, men famous in every walk of life, held membership in it as an honour; very soon it numbered 1,300. But its very numbers were its undoing. Not a few of them were henceforth mediocre or even dull, and in this way an institution called into being for the improvement of letters became itself a menace thereto. The arrogant rococo style in art and letters had, indeed, merited the attacks made upon it by the "Arcadia", and for this reason the latter received, directly and indirectly, a large measure of endorsement. But "Arcadianism", with its own exaggerations and one-sidedness, soon developed into a genuine peril for literature and art. It even reflected on the public intelligence, since the mob of "Arcadia", while pretending to simplicity and naturalness, frequently hid a great poverty of thought beneath a superficial literary air. Its principal members, moreover, often sounded the depths of bad taste. Among these may be specified one Bettinelli, notorious for his disparagement of Dante. The violence of the anti-Arcadian reaction was owing to its chief leaders, Baretti and Parini, and to the fact that, consciously or not, this reaction gave vent to the new spirit now dominant on the eve of the French Revolution. Arcadianism fell, the last and unsuccessful tentative, literary and artistic, of the ancient regime. This explains why, in certain quarters, since the Revolution, the Arcadia, both as an academy and as a symbol, has been the object of much contempt, exaggerated at the best when it is not absolutely unjust. Nevertheless, when the first onslaught of the Revolution had lapsed, "Arcadia" strove to renew itself in accord with the spirit of the times, without sacrificing its traditional system of sylvan associations and pastoral names. The academy no longer represented a literary school, but merely a general tendency towards the classic style. Dante came to be greatly honoured by its members, and even to this day its conferences on the great poet are extremely interesting. Furthermore, the academic field was enlarged so as to include all branches of study, in consequence of which history, archæology, etc. attracted, and continue to attract, assiduous students. The new Arcadian revival was marked by the foundation (1819) of the Giornale Arcadico, through the efforts of the distinguished scholars, Perticari, Biondi, Odescalchi, and Borghesi. Its fifth series closed in 1904. The current (sixth) series began in 1906 as a monthly magazine of science, letters, and arts. On account of its frankly Catholic character the Arcadia has provoked opposition on the part of anti-Catholic critics, who affect to belittle it in the eyes of a thoughtless public, as if even today its "shepherds" did nothing but indite madrigals to Phyllis and Chloe. Nevertheless, its scientific, literary, and artistic conferences, always given by scholars of note, are largely attended. Since 1870 there have been established four sections of philology (Oriental, Greek, Latin, and Italian), one of philosophy, and one of history. The Pope, foremost of the members, promotes its scientific and literary development. Its present location is near San Carlo al Corso, 437 Corso Umberto I. Cf. Crescimbeni, "Storia della volgar Poesia" (Rome 1698) Bk. VI, and "La Storia d' Arcadia" (Rome, 1709). For its history in recent times see the files of the Giornale Arcadico.

Pontificia Accademia Teologica:—Like its sister societies at Rome, this academy was of private origin. In 1695, a number of friends gathered in the house of the priest, Raffaele Cosma Girolami, for lectures and discussions on theological matters. These meetings soon took on the character of an academy. In 1707 it was united to the Accademia Ecclesiastica. Clement XII gave it formal recognition in 1718 and assigned it a hall in the Sapienza (University of Rome), thereby making it a source of encouragement for young students of theology. The academy disposed of a fund of eighteen thousand scudi ($18,000), the income of which was devoted to prizes for the most proficient students of theology. Among the patrons were several cardinals, and the professors in the theological faculty in the University acted as censors. The successors of Clement XII continued to encourage the academy. In 1720 Clement XIII ordered that among its members twenty indigent secular priests should receive for six years from the papal treasury an annual allowance of fifty scudi and, other things being equal, should have the preference in competitive examinations. It is on these lines, substantially, that its work is carried on at present. The Academy is located in the Roman Seminary.

Pontificia Accademia Liturgica.—This academy was the one result of the notable movement in liturgical studies which owed so much to the great theologian and liturgist, Benedict XIV (1745–8). Disbanded in the time of the Revolution, the Academy was reorganized by the Lazarists, under Gregory XV (1840), and received a cardinal-protector. It continues its work under the direction of the Lazarists, and holds frequent conferences in which liturgical and cognate subjects are treated from the historical and the practical point of view. It is located in the Lazarist house, and its proceedings are, since 1886, published in the Lazarist monthly known as "Ephemerides Liturgicæ" (Liturgical Diary).

Pontificia Accademia di Religione Cattolica.—The urgent need of organizing Catholic apologetics with a view to the anti-Christian polemics of the "Encyclopédie" and the Revolution gave rise to this academy. The Roman priest Giovanni Fortunato Zamboni founded it in 1801, with the avowed aim of defending the dogmatic and moral teaching of the Church. It was formally recognized by Pius VII, and succeeding popes have continued to give it their support. It holds monthly meetings for the discussion of various points in dogmatic and moral theology, in philosophy, history, etc. Its conferences are generally published in some periodical, and a special edition is printed for the Academy. A number of these dissertations have been printed, and form a collection of several volumes entitled "Dissertazioni lette nella Pontificia Accademia Romana di Religione Cattolica". The Academy has for honorary censors a number of cardinals. The president of the Academy is also a cardinal. It includes promoters, censors, resident members, and corresponding members. It awards an annual prize for the members most assiduous at the meetings, and is located in the palace of the Cancelleria Apostolica.

Pontificia Accademia Tiberina.—In 1809 the well-known archæologist, A. Nibby, founded the short-lived "Accademia Ellenica". In 1813 many of its members withdrew to found the "Accademia Tiberina". One of the members, A. Coppi, drew up its first rules, according to which the Academy was to devote itself to the study of Latin and Italian literature, hold a weekly meeting, and a public session monthly. Great scientific or literary events were to be signalized by extraordinary meetings. It was also agreed that the Academy should undertake the history of Rome from Odoacer to Clement XIV, as well as the literary history from the time of that pontiff. The historiographer of the Academy was to edit its history and to collect the biographies of famous men, Romans or residents in Rome, who had died since the foundation of the "Tiberina". For