Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/127

This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.

worthy; for many years", etc., which the people in certain ancient rituals were directed to make when the bishop-elect was presented to them before his consecration.

Councils.—Other acclamations meet us in the acts of some of the early councils. They seem in most cases to have taken the form of compliments to the emperors, and may often perhaps be no more significant than a toast to the king and royal family at a modern banquet. But we read of other cries, for instance, that at the first session of the Council of Chalcedon (October, 451) the Fathers shouted, regarding Dioscurus: "The scoffer always runs away. Christ has deposed Dioscurus, Christ has deposed the murderer"; or again: "This is a just verdict; This is a just council"; or again, "God has avenged His Martyrs". Upon the other meanings which have been attached to the word acclamation some of them rather strained it does not seem necessary to speak at length. (1) The applause of the congregation which often in ancient times interrupted the sermons of favourite preachers. (2) The prayers and good wishes found upon sepulchral monuments, etc., to which the name acclamations is sometimes given. (3) The brief liturgical formulæ, such as Dominus vobiscum, Kyrie Eleison, Deo gratias, etc. (4) For election by acclamation, See Election, Conclave, and Acclamation (in Papal Elections).

Cabrol in Dict. d'archéol. chrét., 240–265. This article includes a discussion of inscriptions, liturgical formulae, and other miscellaneous matters. For the subject of Acclamations in classical times, cf. Daremberg and Saglio, Dict. des Antiq., s.v.; Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyclopedie der classischen Alterthumswissenschaft; Mommsen, Rom. Staatsrecht, III, 951, 349; Peter, Die Scriptores Hist. August. (Leipzig, 1892), 221 sqq.; Heer, in Philologus (supplementary vol.), IX (1904), 187 sqq. For coronations imperial and papal, see Le Laudes nell' Incoronazione del Som. Pontifice, in La Civilta Cattolica, 15 Aug., 1903, 387–404; Brightman, Byzantine Imperial Coronations, in Journ. of Theol. Studies, April, 1901; Grisar, Analecta Romana (Rome, 1899), 229 sqq.; Martene, De Ant. Eccl. Rit. (1737), II, 578, 851–852; Diemand, Das Ceremoniell der Kaiserkronungen (Munich, 1894), 82; Maskell, Monumenta Ritualia (2d ed., Oxford, 1882), II, 85; Legg, English Coronation Records (London, 1901).

Acclamation, in Papal Elections, one of the forms of papal election. The method of electing the Roman Pontiff is contained in the constitutions of Gregory XV, "Æterni Patris Filius" and "Decet Romanum Pontificem." Urban VIII's constitution, "Ad Romani Pontificis Providentiam", is confirmatory of the preceding. According to these documents, three methods of election alone are valid; namely, by scrutiny, by compromise, and by acclamation, or "quasi-inspiration." This last form of election consists in all the cardinals present unanimously proclaiming one of the candidates Supreme Pontiff, without the formality of casting votes. As this must be done without previous consultation or negotiation it is looked on as proceeding from the Holy Ghost and hence is also designated "quasi-inspiration". An example of this mode of election in more recent times is found in the case of Clement X (1670–76), formerly Cardinal Altieri, whose election is said to have been determined by the sudden cry of the people outside the conclave, "Altieri Papa", which was confirmed by the cardinals (Keller). Innocent XI (1676–89) is another example. The cardinals surrounded him in the chapel of the conclave and in spite of his resistance every one of them kissed his hand, proclaiming him Pope (De Montor).

Ferraris, Bibliotheca, art. Papa (Rome, 1890); Wernz, Jus Decret. (Rome, 1899), II, tit. 30; De Montor, Lives of Rom. Pont. (New York, 1866); Keller, Life of Leo XIII (New York, 1888); Lector, Le Conclave (Paris, 1898).

Accommodation, Biblical.—We shall consider (1) what is meant by biblical accommodation; (2) its use in Sacred Scripture; (3) the rules which ought to regulate its use.—(1) What is Biblical Accommodation? By accommodation is understood the adaptation of words or sentences from Sacred Scripture to signify ideas different from those expressed by the sacred author. Thus, if a sinner excuses his fault by saying, "The serpent deceived me", he applies the scriptural words of Eve (Gen., iii, 13) to express an idea which the sentence does not convey in the Bible. Similarly, a blind person might use the words of Tob., v, 12, "What manner of joy shall be to me, who sit in darkness, and see not the light of heaven". Here, again, the words would have a meaning which they do not bear in Sacred Scripture. This accommodation is sometimes incorrectly styled the accommodated, or accommodative, sense of Scripture. From the definition it is clear that it is not a sense of Scripture at all. The possibility of such accommodation may arise, first, from some similarity between the ideas in the sacred text and the subject to which the passage is accommodated; secondly, from the fact that the words of Scripture may be understood in two different senses. The first is called extensive accommodation. Examples of it are found in the Church's offices, both in the Breviary and the Missal, when the praises bestowed by the Holy Ghost on Noe, Isaac, and Moses are applied to other saints. Thus the words of Ecclus., xxxii, 1, 5: "Have they made thee ruler? … hinder not music" are sometimes applied to College presidents assuming the burden of their office; we need not say that the words of Sacred Scripture have quite a different meaning. The second species of accommodation, called allusive, is often a mere play on words and at times seems due to a misunderstanding of the original meaning. The Vulgate text, Mirabilis Deus in sanctis suis (Ps., lxvii, 36) means, in the mouth of the Psalmist, that God is wonderful in His sanctuary (sancta, -orum). The Latin words may also be translated "God is wonderful in his saints" (sancti, -orum), and they are employed in this sense in the Missal. As this second signification was not intended by the inspired writer, the English rendering of the text in the Douay version is a mistranslation.—(2) The Use of Accommodation in the Bible. It is generally held by Catholic authors that certain passages from the Old Testament have been used over again in the New Testament with a change of meaning. In the Epistle to the Hebrews (xiii, 5) the words spoken to Josue, "I will not leave thee, nor forsake thee" (Jos., i, 5), are applied to all Christians. Other examples of accommodation are the use of Exod., xvi, 18 in II Cor., viii, 15; Zach., iv, 14 in Apoc., xi, 4; Ps., vi, 9 in Matt., vii, 2, 3; Mich., vii, 6 in Matt, x, 36. Evidently, the new meaning attached to the words is also inspired. Rationalistic writers have maintained that similar accommodations are to be found in every case where the Evangelists quote the prophecies of the Old Testament. Some few Catholic writers have been willing to grant this explanation for a few passages, but the words in which the Evangelists assert that events in Our Lord's life took place "in order that" the prophecies might be fulfilled are incompatible with the theory that they wished to indicate only a resemblance between the event and the prophet's words. It is probable that no prophecy is used in the Gospels merely by accommodation.—(3) Rules for Accommodation. The use of accommodation in the Liturgy and by the Fathers of the Church is sufficient to show that it is legitimate. Hence texts have been, and are frequently, accommodated by preachers and ascetical authors. Many of the sermons of St. Bernard are mosaics of Scripture phrases and owe much of their peculiar unction to his happy use of the sacred words. Latin writers and preachers have not been so reverent and careful in their accommodation, and this was one of the abuses