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ACERBO
ACHAZ
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Emperor Zeno and imposed by him in his edict of union, or Henoticon, could only satisfy the indifferent. The condemnation of Eutyclies irritated the rigid Monophysites; the equivocal attitude taken towards the Council of Chalecdon appeared to them insufficient, and many of them, especially the monks, deserted Peter Mongus, preferring to be without a head (ἀκέφαλοι), rather than remain in communion with him. Later, thev joined the partisans of the Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch, Severus. The Deacon Liberatus (Breviariuin. P. L., LVIII, 9.SS) supposes the name Acephali (Headless) to have been given to those at the Council of Ephesus who followed neither Cyril of Alexandria nor John of Antioch.

Leont. Byzant., De Sectis, in P.G., LXXXII 1230; Baronius, Annales, an. 482; Heffele, Hist. of Councils, II; Bardenhewer in Kirchenlex, (Freiburg, 1882), I.

Acerbo Nimis. See Catechetics.

Acerenza (Acherontia), The Archdiocese of, in the provinces of Lecce and Potenza, Italy, has been united since 1203 with the Diocese of Matera. It lays claim to a very early, even Apostolic, origin. Acerenza was certainly an episcopal see in the course of the fifth century, for in 499 we meet with the name of its first known bishop, Justus, in the Acts of the Roman Synod of that year. The town is situated on an elevated ridge of the Apennines whence the eye dominates both the Adriatic and the Mediterranean; it was known in antiquity as the high nest of Acherontia (Hor., Odes, III, iv, 14). The cathedral is one of the oldest and most beautiful in Italy, and has lately become quite famous for a bust long supposed to be that of St. Canus or Canius (Ascanius?) patron of the city, but now judged to be a portrait-bust of Julian the Apostate, though others maintain that it is a bust of the Emperor Frederick II, after the manner of the sculptors of the Antonine age. Acerenza was in early imperial times a populous and important town, and a bulwark of the territory of Lucania and Apulia. In the Gothic and Lombard period it fell into decay, but was restored by Grimwald, Duke of Beneventum (687–689). An Archbishop of Acerenza (Giraldus) appears in 1063 in an act of donation of Robert Guiscard to the monastery of the Holy Trinity in Venosa. For a few years after 968 Acerenza was forced to adopt the Greek Rite in consequence of a tyrannical order of the Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus Phocas (963–969), whereby it was made one of five suffragans of Otranto, and compelled to acknowledge the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople (Moroni, Dizionario, L, 63). Pope Urban VI (1378–89, Bartolommeo Prignano), was once Archbishop of Acerenza. Matera is said to have been created a see by the Greeks. Its cathedral dates from the year 1000, and is likewise a richly ornamented specimen of contemporary ecclesiastical architecture in Southern Italy. The Archdiocese of Acerenza contains 22 parishes, 308 secular priests, and a few priests of religious orders. The population numbers 147,900. The present bishop is Monsignor Raffaele Rossi, successor (1899) of Monsignor Diomede Falconio, now Apostolic Delegate to the United States.

Ughelli, Italia Sacra (Venice, 1722), VII, 5; Cappelletti, Le chiese d'Italia (Venice, 1866), XX, 420–431; Lenormant, A travers l'Apulie et la Lucanie (Paris, 1874), I, 271; Volpe, Memorie storiche, profane e religiose sulla città di Matera (Naples, 1813).

'Acerno. See Salerno.

Achab ('A'ḥ'ābh, Ἀχαάβ in Jer., xxix, 22, 'Éḥābh, Ἀχιάβ), son of Amri and King of Israel, 918–897 b.c., according to III K., xvi, 29, but 875–854 according to the Assyrian documents. The original reading of III K., xvi, 29, may have been changed. The King was married to Jezabel, a Sidonian princess, and was misled by her into idolatry (III K., xvi, 31 sqq.), the persecution of the prophets (III K., xviii, 13 sqq.), and a most grievious injustice against Naboth (III K., xxi). He was twice victorious in his wars against Syria (III K., xx, 1328), and made an alliance with the Syrian King Benadad in spite of prophetic warning (III K., xx, 33). In the sixth year of Salmanassar II the allies were overcome by the Assyrians near Karkar, and their compact ceased. Achab now allied himself with Josaphat, King of Juda, and they began war against Syria in order to conquer Ramoth Galaad (III K., xxii, 3 sqq.). The false prophets foretold victory, while Micheas predicted defeat. The battle was begun in spite of this warning, and an arrow wounded Achab between the lungs and the stomach (III K., xxii, 34). He died in the evening, and when his chariot was washed in the pool of Samaria, the dogs licked up his blood (III K., xxii, 38).

Mechineau in Vig., Dict. de la Bible (Paris, 1895); Hagen, Lexicon Biblicum (Paris, 1905); Welte in Kirchenlex.

Achaia' (Ægialeia), the name, before the Roman conquest in 146 b. c. of a strip of land between the gulf of Corinth in the north and Elis and Arcadia in the south, embracing twelve cities leagued together. The Achæan League was prominent in the struggle of the Greeks against Roman domination. It is probably due to this fact that the name was afterwards extended to the whole country south of Macedonia and Illyricum, corresponding approximately to modern Greece. During the Roman period Achaia was usually governed as a senatorial province. The Governor was an ex-Prætor of Rome, and bore the title of Proconsul. Corinth was the capital. When St. Paul came into Achaia (Acts, xviii), Gallio, a brother of Seneca, was proconsul. His refusal to interfere in the religious affairs of the Jews and the tolerance of his administration favoured the spread of Christianity. In Corinth the Apostle founded a flourishing church. In his Second Epistle to the Corinthians, he salutes Christians "in all Achaia" (i, 1) and commends their charity (ix, 2).

Ramsay in Hastings, Dict. of the Bible; Mommsen, Provinces of the Roman Empire (Rom. Gesch.), V, vii.

Achaicus, a Corinthian Christian, who, together with Fortunatus and Stephanas, carried a letter from the Corinthians to St. Paul, and from St. Paul to the Corinthians (I Cor., xvi, 17; Cf. also xvi, 1,5).

Achard de Saint Victor. See Saint Victor.

Achart, Saint (Aichard). See Rouen.

Achatius, Saint. See Acacius.

Achaz (Ahaz, Ἄχαζ), King of Juda, placed variously, 741–726 b.c., 744–728, 748–727, 724–709, 734–728. It seems to be certain that Theglathphalasar's first expedition against Damascus mentioned in the life of Achaz fell in 733 b.c., and the second in 731. Owing to his idolatry (IV K., xvi, 3, 4, II Par., xxviii, 24), Achaz was conquered first by Rasin, King of Syria, and then by Phacee, King of Israel (II Par., xxviii, 5; IV K., xvi, 6). Now, Rasin and Phacee made an alliance in order to dethrone the house of David in Juda, and to make the son of Tabeel king (Is., vii, 26). The prophet Isaias offers to Achaz God's aid with the promise of safety in case of belief, but with the threat of punishment in case of unbelief (Is., vii, 1221). Achaz is unbelieving, seeks help from Theglathphalasar, offering at the same time rich presents from the temple treasury (IV K., xvi, 7, 8). The king of the Assyrians takes Damascus, afflicts Israel (IV K., xv, 29; xvi, 9), but reduces Juda to the necessity of buying its freedom (IV K., xvi, 17; II Par., xxviii, 20). Achaz was not improved by this affliction, but he introduced into the temple an altar modelled after that at Damascus (IV K.,