with hints of a more advanced understanding. As far as the work of the Church among the Indians is concerned, the "De procurandâ Indorum salute" is perhaps more valuable than the "Historia," because it shows the standpoint from which efforts at civilizing the aborigines should be undertaken. That standpoint indicates no common perception of the true nature of the Indian, and of the methods of approaching him for his own benefit.
De Backer, Bibliothèque des écrivains de la Cie. de Jesus. Among earlier sources, Father Eusebius Nieremberg, Anella Oliva, Historia del Perú y de los Varones insignes de la Compagñía de Jesus (1639) deserves mention, as well as Nicholas Antonio, Biblioteca Vetustisima and the Bibliography of Beristain de Souza; writers on Spanish-American literature generally mention Acosta. A good Bibliography, and a short Biography of Acosta, are found in Enrique Torres Saldanando, Los antiquos Jesuitas del Peru (Lima, 1882). See also: Mendiburu, Diccionario historico-biográfica del Peru, I (1874).
Acquapendente, a diocese in Italy under the immediate jurisdiction of the Holy See, comprising seven towns of the Province of Rome. Acquapendente was under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of Orvieto until 1649. That year, in consequence of a conspiracy, Cristoforo Girarda, a Barnabite of Novara, Bishop of Castro, was assassinated. In punishment of this crime, Innocent X ordered Castro to be destroyed, and raised Acquapendente to the dignity of an episcopal city (Bull, 13 September, 1649). Its bishops, however, retain the appellation "post Castrenses." The first incumbent of the new See was the Hieronymite (il gerosolimitano) Pompeo Mignucci of Offida, who had been Archbishop of Ragusa. He took possession 10 January, 1650. This diocese contains 13 parishes; 80 churches, chapels, and oratories; 47 secular clergy; 35 seminarians; 15 regular priests; 49 religious (women); 30 confraternities. Population, 19,350.
Ughelli, Italia Sacra (Venice, 1722), I, 583; Cappelletti, Le chiese d'Italia (Venice, 1866), V, 549; Gams, Series Episcoporum Ecclesiæ Catholicæ (Ratisbon, 1873), 660; Rhangiasi, Bibliografia istorica della città e luoghi dello Stato Pontificio (Rome, 1772).
Acquaviva, name of several Italian cardinals.—Francesco, b. 1665 at Naples, of the family of the Dukes of Atri. He filled various offices under Innocent XI, Alexander VIII, Innocent XII, and Clement XI. The latter created him Cardinal, and Bishop of Sabina. He died in 1723, and was buried at Rome in the Church of Santa Cecilia.—Giovanni Vincenzo, Bishop of Melfi and Rapolla (1537), Cardinal-priest of Sylvester and Martin (1542), d. in 1566.—Giulio, b. at Naples, 1546; d. 1574. Nuncio of St. Pius V to Philip II of Spain, made Cardinal by the same pope, whom he assisted on his deathbed.—Ottavio (the elder), b. at Naples, 1560; d. 1612; filled various offices under Sixtus V, Gregory XIV, and Clement VIII, was Cardinal-legate in the Campagna and at Avignon, and was instrumental in the conversion of Henri IV. Leo XI made him Archbishop of Naples (1605).—Ottavio (the younger), of the family of the dukes of Atri, b. at Naples, 1608; d. at Rome, 1674. He was made Cardinal in 1654 by Innocent IX, and legate at Viterbo and in Romagna, where he checked the ravages of the banditti. He is buried at Rome in the church of Santa Cecilia.—Troiano, b. 1694 at Naples, of the same ducal family; d. at Rome in 1747. He was employed by Benedict XIII in the administration of the Papal States, made Cardinal by Clement XII in 1732. He represented in the Curia the Kings of Spain, Philip V and Charles III, and at the former's request was made Archbishop of Toledo, whence he was transferred to Montereale. He was influential in the conclave that elected (17 August, 1740) Benedict XIV. He is buried at Rome in the Church of Santa Cecilia.—Pasquale, of Avignon, b. 1719 at Naples; d. 1788. He was made Cardinal by Clement XIV in 1773.
Stahl in Kirchenlex., I, 1177–78.
Acquaviva, Claudius, fifth General of the Society of Jesus, born October, 1543; died 31 January, 1615. He was the son of Prince Giovanni Antonio Acquaviva, Duke of Atri, in the Abruzzi, and, at twenty-five, when high in favor at the papal court, renounced his brilliant worldly prospects, and entered the Society. After being Provincial both of Naples and Rome, he was elected General of the Society, 19 February, 1581. He was the youngest who ever occupied that post. His election coincided with the first accusation of ambition ever made against a great official of the Order. Manareus had been named Vicar by Father Mercurian, and it was alleged that he aspired to the generalship. His warm defender was Acquaviva, but to dispel the slightest suspicion, Manareus renounced his right to be elected. Acquaviva was chosen by a strong majority. His subsequent career justified the wisdom of the choice, which was very much doubted at the time by the Pope himself. During his generalship, the persecution in England, wither he had once asked to go as a missionary, was raging; the Huguenot troubles in France were at their height; Christianity was being crushed in Japan; the Society was expelled from Venice, and was oppressed elsewhere; a schism within the Society was immanent; the pope, the Inquisition, and Philip II were hostile. Acquaviva was denounced to the Pope, even by men like Toletus (q.v.), yet such was his prudence, his skill, his courage, and his success, that he is regarded as the greatest administrator, after St. Ignatius, the Society ever had. Even those who were jealous of him admitted his merit, when, to satisfy them, the fifth and sixth Congregations ordered an investigation to be made of his method of government. The greatest difficulty he had to face was the schism organized in Spain by Vasquez (q.v.). The King and Pope had been won over by the dissidents. Open demands for quasi-independence for Spain had been made in the Congregations of the Society. No Jesuit was allowed to leave Spain without royal permission. Episcopal visitation of the houses had been asked for and granted. But finally, through the mediation of the English Jesuit, Robert Parsons (q.v.), who was highly esteemed by Philip, the King was persuaded of the impolicy of the measures, while Acquaviva convinced the Pope that the schism would be disastrous for the Church. Deprived of these supports the rebellion collapsed. Simultaneously the Inquisition was doing its best to destroy the Society. It listened to defamatory accusations, threw the Provincial of Castille into prison, demanded the surrender of the Constitutions for examination, until Acquaviva succeeded in inducing the Pope to call the case to his own tribunal, and revoke the powers which had been given to the Inquisition, or which it claimed. Finally, Pope Sixtus V, who had always been unfriendly to the Society, determined to change it completely. The Emperor Ferdinand implored him not to act; the College of Cardinals resisted; but the Pope was obstinate. The bull was prepared, and Acquaviva himself was compelled to send in a personal request to have even the name changed, when the death of the pontiff saved the situation—a coincidence which gave rise to accusations against the Society. His successor, Gregory XIV, hastened to renew all the former privileges of the Order, and to confirm its previous approbations.
During Acquaviva's administration, the protracted controversy on Grace (see Controversies on Grace, between the Dominicans and the Jesuits, took