invade Italy. He met with little resistance, and betook himself to Canossa where he met Adelaide, and married her on Christmas day, 951, at Pavia. This marriage gave Otho no new rights over Italy, but the enthusiasm of the people for Adelaide, whose career had been so romantic, appealed to them and made Otho's work of subjugating the peninsula easy. In Germany she was the idol of her subjects, while her husband lived. During the reign of her son Otho II, her troubles began, chiefly owing to the jealousy of her daughter-in-law, Theophano, and possibly also because of her excessive liberality in her works of charity. It resulted in her withdrawing from court and fixing her residence at Pavia, but a reconciliation was effected by the Abbot of Cluny, St. Mayeul. The same troubles broke out when her grandson came to the throne, the jealous daughter-in-law being yet unreconciled, and Adelaide was again forced into seclusion. But Theophano dying suddenly, Adelaide was recalled to assume the burden of a Regency. Her administration was characterized by the greatest wisdom. She took no revenge upon her enemies; her court was like a religious house; she multiplied monasteries and churches in the various provinces, and was incessant in her efforts to convert the pagans of the North. In the last year of her reign she undertook a journey to Burgundy to reconcile her nephew Rudolph with his subjects, but died on the way at Seltz, in Alsace. She is not mentioned in the Roman martyrology, but her name appears in several calendars of Germany, and her relics are enshrined in Hanover. St. Odilo of Cluny wrote her life.
Vite de' Santi Gentilucci, Decembre.
Adelham (or Adland), John Placid, a Protestant minister, b. in Wiltshire, who became a Catholic and joined the Benedictines. He was professed at St. Edward's Monastery, Paris, 1652. He was Prior of St. Lawrence's Monastery, at Dieulward from 1659 to 1661, and was then sent to England and stationed at Somerset House from 1661 to 1675. Banished that year, he returned to England again and became a victim of the "Popish Plot" of Titus Gates. He was tried and condemned to death merely as a priest, 17 January, 1678–79. Though reprieved, he was detained in Newgate Prison, where he died between the years 1681 and 1685.
Gillow, Bibl. Dict. of Engl. Cath.
Adelm, Saint. See St. Aldhelm.
Adelmann, Bishop of Brescia in the eleventh century. Of unknown parentage and nationality, he was educated at the famous school of Chartres, in France, founded by Fulbert, and was considered one of his favourite scholars. Among his fellow students was Berengarius, to whom, at a later period, he addressed two letters. The second (incomplete) letter (P.L., CXLIII, 1289) is a valuable dogmatic exposition of the teaching of the Church on the Blessed Sacrament (Epist. de Eucharistiæ Sacramento); the Benedictine editors of the "Histoire littéraire de la France" call it "one of the finest literary documents of the period." It breathes a tender affection for Berengarius, the friend of the writer's youth. Calvin called him "barbarus, imperitus, et sophista." Adelmann seems to have become Bishop of Brescia in 1050, and to have taken an active share in the church-reform movement of the period, especially against the clerical abuses of simony and concubinage.
Brischar in Kirchenlex., I, 222; Ughelli, Italia Sacra, IV, 540; Hist. Litt. de la France, VIII, 542. The edition of Schmid (Brunswick, 1770) is fuller than the one reprinted in Migne from the Bibl. Lugd., XVIII, 438.
Adelophagi (ἀδήλως = secretly, and φάγω = I eat), a sect mentioned by the anonymous author known as Prædestinatus (P.L., LIII, 612). They pretended that a Christian ought to conceal himself from other men to take his nourishment, imagining that thus he imitated the Prophets, and basing their view on certain passages of Scripture. The author of Prædestinatus said this was their only error, but Philastrius intimates that they also rejected the divinity of the Holy Ghost. They seem to have flourished in the latter part of the fourth century.
Adelphians. See Messallians.
Aden (Adane), Vicariate Apostolic of.—It comprises all Arabia, and is properly known as the Vicariate Apostolic of Arabia and Aden. The present incumbent is the Rt. Rev. Bernardine Thomas Clark. It includes also the islands that depend geographically on Arabia, notably Perim and Socotra. From 1839 to 1851, it was part of the Vicariate Apostolic of Egypt, when it was united to the African Vicariate of the Gallas of Abyssinia, under the Capuchins. In 1854 a secular priest, Aloysius Sturla, became Prefect Apostolic there. Later the mission was given back to the Capuchins, under the Vicariate Apostolic of Bombay. In 1859 it became an independent mission, and in 1875 it was again united to the African Vicariate. It was made an independent Vicariate Apostolic again in 1888, and committed to the care of the Capuchins. The population of Aden, now a strongly fortified place, is about 40,000, Arabs, Somalis, Jews, and Indians, besides the British garrison and officials. The large and important harbour furnishes one of the principal coaling-stations of the British Empire. Being a free port, it has become the chief trading-centre for all the neighbouring countries. The British settlement dates from 1839, and the site is almost the most southerly on the Arabian coast, "being a peninsula of an irregular oval form, of about fifteen miles in circumference, connected with the mainland by a narrow, sandy isthmus." There are in this Vicariate Apostolic 11 missionary priests; 6 churches and chapels; 6 stations; 2 religious orders of men, and 1 of women; 4 orphanages and 6 elementary schools. The Catholic population is about 1,500.
Annuario Ecclesiastico (Rome, 1906); Battandier, Annuaire pont. cath. (Paris, 1905), 344; Werner, Orbis Terr. Cath. (Freiburg, 1890),144; Missiones Catholicæ, (Rome, 1901.)
Adeodatus, son of St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, b. 372; d. 388. St. Augustine was not converted to the Faith until he was thirty-two years of age. At seventeen he contracted an illicit relation with a young woman and Adeodatus was born of this union. Augustine, in his delight, named him "Adeodatus", i.e. the "gift of God". When Augustine went to Rome, and, later, to Milan, this young woman and the child went with him, and she and Augustine continued their guilty relations. The young Adeodatus was the pride and hope of his parents, and possessed of an extraordinary mental endowment. Bound by this natural enthralment, Augustine would not bring himself to break from it; and as the sinful union was an obstacle to his receiving the gift of faith, St. Monica, his mother, desired him to marry the mother of his child, feeling that then his mind would be enlightened by grace. Just as the name of the mother of Adeodatus has never been told, so also there has never been given the reason why she and Augustine did not marry at this juncture, though there was evidently some strong if not insurmountable one. Finally they separated. "She was stronger than I", wrote St. Augustine, "and made her sacrifice with a courage and a generosity which I was not strong enough to imitate." She returned to