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ADVERSUS
ADVOCATES
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destroyed. They attempt, in addition, a detailed interpretation of certain biblical prophecies, and believe the prophetic gift is still communicated, and was possessed latterly by Mrs. E. G. White in particular. They were formed into a body in 1845. They number 76,102 members. IV. The Church of God.—An offshoot of the Seventh Day Adventists. These dissidents refuse to accept the prophecies of Mrs. White, or the interpretation of the vision in Apocalypse 12:11–17, as applying to the United States. Otherwise they resemble the Seventh Day Adventists, They became an independent body in 1864–65. This church has 647 members. V. Life and Advent Union. A movement which, begun in 1848 was compacted into an organized body in 1860. This church insists that the wicked will not rise again, but will remain in an endless sleep. It has a membership of 3,800. VI. Age-to-come Adventists. These believe, besides the common Adventist doctrines, that the wicked will ultimately be destroyed, and that eternal life is given through Christ alone. They originated in 1851; the General Conference was organized in 1885. They number 1,872 in the United States.

Taylor, The Reign of Christ (Boston, 1889); Wellcome, History of the Second Advent Message (Yarmouth, Maine, 1874); McKinstrey, The World's Great Empires (Haverhill, Mass., 1881); Andrews, History of the Seventh and First Day (Battle Creek, Mich., 1873); White, The Great Controversy (Battle Creek, 1870); Smith, Thoughts on Daniel and Revelation (1882); Long, Kingdom of Heaven Upon Earth (1882); The End of The Ungodly (1886); Pile, The Doctrine of Conditional Immortality (Springfield, Mass); Brown, The Divine Key of Redemption (Springfield, Mass).

Adversus Aleatores. See Gambling.

Advertence. See Human Acts.

Advertisements, Book of.—A series of enactments concerning ecclesiastical matters, drawn up by Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury (1559–75), with the help of Grindal, Horne, Cox, and Bullingham. It is important as connected with the origin of English Nonconformity, and as being one of a group of documents concerning ritual, the import of which became in the nineteenth century the subject of prolonged and inconclusive discussion. On Elizabeth's accession (November, 1558), the Latin services and the Catholic ceremonial were in use. The return from exile of the extreme Protestants, whose doctrinal disputes at Frankfort had shown the lengths to which they were prepared to go, was viewed with apprehension by those in authority. The opposition of the House of Lords to the Act of Uniformity (1559), rendering obligatory the use of the English Prayer-Book, made the Government warily follow a policy of compromise. The rubric authorizing (subject to the proviso in the act, "until other order should be taken by the Queen"), the retention of the Catholic ornaments in use in the second year of Edward VI, was in direct opposition to the tone of the rest of the Prayer-Book, for the communion service was substantially that of the second Prayer-Book of Edward VI (1552), which had been said at a bare table by a surpliced minister. The Reformers' dismay was extreme. "Other order", however, was taken by Elizabeth in the "Injunctions", of which the provisions, though opposed to the rubric, became the rule of the Anglican Church. The Reformers were further appeased by the wholesale destruction of Catholic vestments and emblems during the General Visitation (August–October, 1559). The Bishops' Conference held in February, 1560, ended in compromise; the crucifix was rejected, but the cope was retained. Such "rags of the Roman Antichrist" irritated the extreme Reformers, who wanted a worship purified from all taint of popery, and they were, therefore, known as "Puritans". They would have none of the cap and gown for clerical use in daily life, nor of the surplice in church. Elizabeth peremptorily called upon the bishops (January, 1564–65) to restore uniformity, and Parker with Grindal and others drew up a "Book of Articles", which he forwarded to Sir William Cecil (3 March, 1564–65). To his intense annoyance they were not approved; but after many delays and alterations they were again submitted to Cecil (28 March, 1566), and published under the title of "Aduertisements, partly for due order in the publique administration of common prayers and usinge the holy sacraments, and partly for the apparell of all persons ecclesiasticall." Elizabeth withheld her formal assent and support; and the bishops were told to exercise their own lawful authority, and so made to bear all the odium their action aroused. The "Advertisements" recognize that it is impossible to get the cope worn at the communion service, and are content to enforce the use of the surplice. Hence, then, the clerical vestment for all services is the surplice, in the parish church, and the cope for the communion service in cathedral churches. Even that was too much for the liking of the extremists. Conformity was enforced under penalty of deprivation, thus giving rise to violent dissensions which embittered Parker's closing years, and occasioned the first open separation of Nonconformists from the Church of England.

Correspondence of Archbishop Parker (Parker Society, 1853); Zurich Letters, Second Series, 146–51, 156–64; Strype, Parker, I, 313–320 (Oxford ed., 1821); Strype, Grindal, (Oxford, 1821), 139–78; the text of the Book of Advertisements is in Cardwell's Documentary Annals (Oxford, 1839), I, 287. See Church Quart. Rev., XVII, 54–60; Gee, The Elizabethan Prayer-Book and Ornaments (London, 1902); Maitland, The Anglican Settlement, etc., in Cambridge Modern History (1903), II, 550–98.

Advocates of Roman Congregations are persons, ecclesiastical or lay, versed in canon and civil law, who plead causes before the ecclesiastical tribunals in Rome. The learning required of these advocates is exceptional and profound. Besides a thorough acquaintance with jurisprudence, both canonical and civil, they must also be versed in moral and dogmatic Theology, and in sacred and profane history. Frequent references to the councils and canons of the Church and to the decrees of the Sovereign Pontiffs oblige them to acquire a deep and varied erudition which embraces various languages, ancient and modern. In several ways the advocate of the Roman Court differs from the ordinary legal pleader. In the first place, it is not his duty to establish the facts in a given case. That is the business of another official called the procurator. The advocate assumes the facts delivered to him by the procurator to be true, and on them he builds his legal argument. Dealing as he does directly with points of law and not with the question of establishing facts, he is freed from the temptation of suborning false witnesses or distorting testimony. Again, a Roman advocate pleads always before learned judges. He cannot, therefore, appeal to the passions or indulge in theatrical displays of eloquence, as if he had to deal with a jury. His language is expected to be sober and refined, clear and precise. Having stated plainly the facts in the case, he is required to state equally plainly the laws on which the decision depends. Very frequently the advocate's plea is made in writing. The recompense of a Roman advocate is a fixed sum, which is to be paid by the client whether the case be gained or lost. There is no temptation, therefore, to proceed to questionable means to obtain a favourable verdict. Moreover, the consistorial advocates are pledged to defend the poor free of charge in case of need. A Pious Society of Advocates exists at Rome whose officers divide the cases of the poor among the members. Con-