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ALESSI 284 ALESSIO without any detriment to the rights of the chapter for the future. It was suppressed in 1213, and united to Acqui; re-established, 1240, and reunited to Acqui, 1405; suppressed. 1803, and re-estabhshed as independent in 1S17. It was vacant from 1854 to 1867. There are 116,0t)0 Catholics; 61 parishes, 143 secular priests, and ISS ehurclies and chapels. Iirr.NDlER, Ann. pontif. calh, (1906). John J. a' Becket. Alessi, Galeazzo, a famous Italian architect, b. 1500; d. 1572. He showed an inclination for mathematics and literature at a very early age, and afterwards studied drawing for civil and military architecture, under the direction of Giarabattista Caporali, a Perugian architect and painter. At Rome he became a friend of Michael Angelo. He completed the fortress of Perugia, begun by Sangallo, built an apartment in it for the governor of the castle, and erected a number of palaces, regarded as the finest in the city. He resided in Genoa a num- ber of j'ears, engaged in the erection of various edifices, the lajnng-out of streets, and the restoration of the walls of the city. On the Carignano Hill he built the church of the Madonna. He repaired, re- stored and embellished the cathedral and made de- signs for its tribune, choir, and cupola. His abilities were most conspicuous in his design for the harbour. He erected therein a large gateway, flanked by rustic columns, and adorned the sea-front with a Doric portico, ingeniously defended by balustrades. This fortress-like work protected the city from within and without and had a spacious square for the military in the interior. He also extended the mole more than 600 paces into the sea, and left a number of designs and models which have been at various times executed by the rich nobles of that city. These and similar splendid edifices have ob- tained for Genoa the title of La Supcrba (The Proud). Alessi executed many works at Ferrara. At Bologna he erected the great gate of the Palazzo Publico. He finished the palace of the Institute according to the design of Pellegrino Tibaldi, and made plans for the facade of San Petronio. At Milan he built the church of San Vittore, the whimsical auditorium del Cambio, and the fagade of San Celso, and greatly distinguished liimself by the erection of the magnificent palace of Tommaso Marini, Duke of Torre Nuova. He also designed edifices in Naples and Sicily, France, Germany, and Flanders. The King of Spain sent for liim to execute some buildings. which, however, are not known, and after some time permitted liim to return to Perugia, laden with riches and honours. He was received by his fellow-citizens with the most flattering expressions of- regard, was admitted into the Scuola di CommeTzio; and was sent to Pope Pius V on a commission invohdng public interest. On liis return to liis own country he was requested by Cardinal Odoardo Farnese to submit a design for the facade of the Ciesil at Rome, so ex- pensive, that it was never executed. For the Duke <lella Corgna he built the stately palace of Castig- lione on the Lake of Perugia, and for the Cardinal, brother of the duke, he erected another on a hill a few miles from the city. In conjunction with Giulio Danti, a Perugian architect, he was employed in the erection of the church of the Madonna degli Angeli, near Assisi, built after the design of Vignola. Finally, Alessi submitted to the Spanish Court a design for the monastery and church of the Escorial (q. v.) in Spain. It wa.s considered the best among plans submitted in a general competition by all the architects of Europe, and he was requested to exe- cute it, but age and indisposition prevented him. Alessi Wius learned, agreeable in conversation, and capable of negotiating the most important affairs. Mil.l7.iA. Lives of CeUbrated ArchitrcU; CJkwitt. Encyclo- padu. 0/ ArchiUcturc. ThoMAS H. PooLE. Alessio (Lissus, Alexiensis), Diocese op, in Eu- ropean Turkey, since 1886 suffragan of Scutari. It is one of the principal seaports of Albania, is favour- ably located near the mouth of the Drin, was founded by Dionysius of Syracuse, and was an important and beautiful city in the time of Diodorus Siculus. It is now known as Alise, Lesch, Eschenderari. or Mrtav. Like all the cities of Albania, it frequently clianged masters in the Middle Ages until the Venetians took possession of it in 1386. It still belonged to them when Skanderbeg died, but shortly afterwards it fell into the hands of the Turks. In 1501 the in- habitants again returned to the Venetian domination, but in the year 1506 Sultan Bajazet obtained the restitution of the city, after it had been evacuated and deprived of its ramparts. To-day it is a poor straggling hamlet of about 2,000 people, one-third of whom are Catholics. In it, however, the moun- taineers hold a weekly bazaar where very large trans- actions take place. The -Vcrolissus or citadel is in- teresting for the well preserved Roman cisterns and medieval arches it still holds. The first known Bishop of Alessio is Valens, who attended the Council of Sardica in 340. It does not figure prrminently in ecclesiastical iiistory until the sixth centurJ^ when it is mentioned as a see in the correspondence of St. Gregory the Great (590-604). Since the end of the fourteenth century, when it came under A'enetian rule, it has had again a series of Latin bishops. Alessio had formerly five churches. The cathedral was dedicated to St. Nicholas and once held the mortal remains of the patriot George Castriota, the immortal Skanderbeg, who died in 1467. Local tradition relates that when the Turks took the town they opened his grave and made amulets of his bones, believing that these would confer indomitable bravery on the wearer. Transformed into a mosque, the cathedral was abandoned by the Ottomans after three dervishes had successively committed suicide from one of its towers. Two other churches dedicated to St. George and to St. Sebastian still survive as mosques. The population is mostly Catholic (about 14,000), attended by fifteen secular priests. The present bishop, elected 24 May, 1870, is Monsignor Francis Malczyinski, an alumnus of the Propaganda. He resides at Calmeti, a little distance from Alessio. At the summit of a group of rocky hills, on the west bank of the Drin, facing the town, are the church and convent of St. Anthony of Padua under the care of the Franciscan friars, a last remnant of the thirty convents they once possessed in Albania. The site is said to have been chosen by the saint himself, and is greatly venerated, especially by the mountaineers of Scutari who make an annual pil- grimage to it on 13 June, and exhibit on that occa- sion a very striking piety. The Mussulmans them- selves respect the church and confide their treasures to the friars whenever they have reason to fear the rapacity of their pashas. Within the diocesan limits of Alessio is the quasi- episcopal abbey (abbatia tiullius) of St. Alexander Orosci or Orochi, the mountain stronghokl of the small but brave body of the Cathohc Mirdites of Albania. Since 1888 it enjoys an independent jurisiliction over this faithful and warlike people which in 1894 obtained from the Porte, through the good offices of Leo XIII, a civil jurisdiction for its abbot, and thereby freed itself from the irksome protectorate of Austria. The abbot has jurisdiction over about 18,000 Catholics, with 16 churches, 13 chapels, 11 secular priests, and 2 l'>anciscans. The present abbot, elected in 1SS8, is Monsignor Primo Dochi, an alumnus of the Propaganda. Faulati. Ilh/r. Sacr. (1817). VII. 384-394; Gams. Serif epinc. Ecd. caih. (1872), 392; HKcyiAiU). La haute AWanit (Paris, 1859); Battandier, Ann. j«m(. cath. (1905). 322, eq. Elisabeth Christitch.