Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/325

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ALEUTIAN 285 ALEXANDER Aleutian Versions of Scripture. See Bidi.e Versions, Ai.kitivn Alexander, name of seven men. — (1) Alexander THE (iuEAT, King of Macedon, 336-323 d. c. He is mentioned in I Mach., i, 1-10; vi, 2. He is also sup- posed to be spoken of in Dan., ii, 39; vii, 6; viii, a-7; xi, 3, 4. — (2) Alex.^nder B.l..s, eleventh King of Syria, 150-14.5 B. c. His struggle for the throne, his promises to Jonathan, his pro-Jewish policy may be learned from I Mach., x, 1-89. He was vanquished by his father-in-law, Ptolemy Philometor of Egj-pt, and Syria thus passed into the hands of Demetrius II (I Mach., xi, 1-19). — (3) Alexander, a son of Simon of Cyrene mentioned by St. Mark (xv, 21) who carried the Cross after Jcsus.^ — (4) Alexander, who was a member of the court that tried Peter and John (Acts, iv, 6); some identify liim with Alexander Lysimachus the brother of Pliilo and friend of Claudius before he jiscended the throne. — (5) Alex- ander, a Jew or a Jewish Christian (Acts, xix, 33, 34), who attempted to defend St. Paul in his Ephesian difficulty; some identify him with the son of Simon of Cyrene. — (6) Alexander, an Ephesian Christian who apostatized (I Tim., i, 20), and who together with flymeneus was deUvered up to .Satan by the Apostles. — (7) Alexander, a coppersmith of Ephesus (II Tim., iv, 14, 15), who did much evil to St. Paul; some identify him witli the Alexander mentioned under the preceding nimiber. Haoen, Leiiron Bihlicum (Paris, 1905): VioouRoux and Jacqiheb in Vio.. Diet, dc la Bible (Paris, 1895); Hast., Robertson and Moss in Diet, of the Bible (New York, 1903). A. J. M.4AS. Alexander, name of several bishops in the early Chri.stian [Hiriod. — Alexander of Antioch, thirty- eighth bishop of that see (413-421), praised by Theodoret (Hist. Ecd., V, 35) "for the lioliness and austerity of his life, his contempt of riches, his love of wisdom, and powerful eloquence." He healed the last remnants of the Meletian schism at Antioch, and obtained at Constantinople the restitution of the name of .St. John Clirj'sostom to the ecclesiastical diptychs (registers). — .lexa.nder of Apamea, a Sy- rian bishop at the Couno'l of Epliesus (431), and one of the eight bishops deputed by the party of John of Antioch to the Emperor Theodosius. — Alexander ok B.siLiN"OPOLis, in Bithynia, a friend of St. John Chry- sostom, to whom he owed his ap)>ointment as bishop; after the fall of his patron he retired (c. 410) to his native Ptolemais in Egypt, where he experienced the hatred of Theophilus of . tioch and the private friend- ship of .Synesius (Epp. (jl, 67). — .lexander ok By- zantium, as Constantinople was then called, bishop of that see during the original Arian troubles. He was 73 years old when appointed (313 or 317), and gov- erned the see for 23 years. He supported his name- sake of Alexandria against . iis, took part in the Council of Nic:ca (325), and refused to admit the arch-heretic to communion, though threatened with deposition and exile. The sudden death of Arius was looked on by contemporary Catholics as an an- swer to the prayers of the good bishop, whom Theo- doret (Hist. Eccl., I, 3) calls an "apostolic" man. He did not long survive this tragic event. — Alexan- der OK HiERAPOLis (Euphratensis),an unlx^nding op- ponent of St. CjTil in the Council of Ephesus (431), and an equally stanch advocate of Nestorius. Even when John of .Vntioch and most of the Oriental bishops yielded, and a general reconciliation was ef- fected, .Alexander stooa out against "the abomina- tion of Egypt". His character is vividly portrayed in the correspondence of his friend and admirer, the historian Theodoret, as that of a grave, holy, pious man, beloved by his people, but hopelessly stubborn along the line of what seemed to him the orthodox faith, .fter the exhaustion of all measures to over- come his resistance, he was banished by imperial decree to the mines of Phamuthin in Egypt, where he died (TiUemont, M^m., XIV, XV). — Alexander OK Jerusalem, the friend of Origen, and his fellow- student at Alexandria under Panta-nus and Clement. He became bi.shop of a see in Cappadocia (or Cilicia?) early in the tliira century, entertained for a time his master Clement, and himself sulTered impri.sonmeiit for the Kaith (204-212). On his release, lie visited Jerusalem, and was chosen coadjutor to Narcissus, the elderly jccupant of that see. This was the first case of an episcopal translation and coadjutorship, and had to be ratified by the hierarchy of Palestine, as.sembled at Jerusalem (Valesius in Eus., Hist. Ecd., VI, 11; Socrates, Hist. Ecd., VII, ,3C). The first Christian theological library was formed by him at Jeru.salem (Eus., Hist. Eccl., V, 20). He de- fended Origen against his bisliop, Demetrius, when the latter had taken olTence at the permission ac- corded Origen to expound the scriptures publidj' in the church of Ca;sarea in the presence of bishops, the latter being the only authoritative e.xponents of the sacred text. Alexander and Tlieoctistus (Bishop of C;psarea) wrote a joint letter to Demetrius, in wiiich they pleaded the ecclesiastical usage of other places (Eus., Hist. Eccl., VI, 19). In the end Origen was ordained a priest by his two protectors (c. 230). He bears personal testimony at the beginning of his first homily on the Books" of Kings, to the ami- able character of Alexander. The latter died in prison at Ca)sarea (251) during the Decian persecu- tion. Some fragments of his letters are pre.-icrvcd in the sixth book of the Ecclesiastical Historj' of Eusebius. Venables and SiurrH in Diet, of Chr. Biogr., I, 82-86; Hefele, History of the Councils, I-II. Thomas J. Shahan. Alexander I — III, Kings of Scotland. See ScoTL..D. Alexander I, Saint, Pope. — St. Irenseus of Lyons, writing in the latter quarter of the second century, reckons him as the fifth pope in succession from the .postles, though he says nothing of his martyrdom. His pontificate is variouslv dated by critics, e. g. lOC-115 (Duchesne) or 109-116 (Light- foot). In Christian antiquity he was credited with a pontificate of about ten years (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., IV, i,) and there is no reason to doubt that he was on the "catalogue of bishops" drawn up at Rome by Hegesippus (Eusebius, I , xxii, 3) before the death of Pope Eleutherius (c. 189). According to a tradi- tion extant in the Roman Church at the end of the fifth century, and recorded in the Liber Pontificalis, he suffered a martyr's death by decapitation on the Via Nomentana in Rome, 3 May. The same tradi- tion declares him to have been a Roman by birth, and to have ruled the Church in the reign of Trajan (98-117). It likewise attributes to him, but scarcely with accuracy, the insertion in the canon of the Qui Pridic, or words commemorative of the insti- tution of the Eucharist, such lx;ing certainly primi- tive and original in the Mass. He is also said to hae introduced the use of blessing water mixed with salt for the purification of Christian homes from evil influences (constituit aquam sparsionis cum sale benedici in habitaculis hominum). Du- chesne (Lib. Pont., I, 127) calls attention to the persistence of this early Roman custom by way of a blessing in the Gelasian Sacramenfarj' that recalls ver' forcibly the actual -■Vsix^rges prayer at the l)oginning of Ma.ss. In 18.55. a semi-subterranean cemeterj- of the holy martjTS Sts. Alexander, Even- tulus, and Theodulus was discovered near Rome, at the spot where the above mentioned tradition de- clares the Pope to have been martyred. .According to some archa-ologist.'s. this Alexander is identical with the Pope, and this ancient and important tomb