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ALEXANDER 286 ALEXANDER marks the actual site of the Pope's martyrdom. Duchesne, however (op. cit., I, xci-ii) denies the identity of the martyr and the pope, while admittmg that the confusion of both personages is of ancient date, probably anterior to the beginning of the si.xth century, when the Liber Pontificalis was first com- piled [Dufourcq, C.esta Martyrum Romains (Paris, 1900), 210-211], The difficulties raised in recent times by Richard Lipsius (Chronologie der romischen Bischofe, Kiel, 1869) and Adolph Harnack (Die Zeit des Ignatius u. die Chronologie der antiocheni- schen Bischofe. 187S) concerning the earliest suc- cessors of St. Peter are ably discussed and answered by F. S. (Canlinal Francesco Segna) in his "De suc- cessione priorum Romanoruni Pontificum" (Rome 1897); with moderation and learning by Bishop Lightfoot, in his "ApostoHc Fathers: St. Clement" (London, 1890) I, 201-345; especially by Duchesne in the introduction to his edition of the "Liber Pon- tificalis" (Paris, 1886) I, i-xlviii and Ixviii-lxxiii. The letters ascribed to Alexander I by Pseudo- Isidore may be seen in P. G., V, 1057 sq., and in Hinschius, " Decretales Pseudo-Isidorianse " (Leipzig, 1863) 94-105. His remains are said to have been transferred to Freising in Bavaria in 834 (Dilmmler, Poeta; Latini Aevi Carolini, Berlin, 1884, II, 120). His so-called "Acts" are not genuine, and were compiled at a much later date (Tillemont, Mem. II, 590 sqq; Dufourcq, op. cit., 210-211). Liber Pontificalis (erl. Duchesne). I, xci-ii. 127, Hist. An- cienne de VEglite (Paris, 1906). 236-237; Acta SS., May 1, 375 sqq.; Atti del mnrtirio diS. Alessandro, etc. (Rome, 1855); De Kossi, Btillettino di archeologia cristiana (Rome. 1865), Thomas J. Sh.h. . Alexander II, Pope, 1061-73. — As Anselm of Lucca, he had been recognized for a number of years as one of the leaders of the reform party, especially in the Milanese territory, where he was born, at Baggio, of noble parentage. Together with Hilde- brand, he had imbibed in Chniy (q. v.) the zeal for reformation. The first theatre of his activity was Milan, where he was one of the founders of the Pataria, and lent to that great agitation against simony and clerical incontinency the weight of his eloquence and noble birth. The device of silencing him, contrived by Archbishop Guido and other episcopal foes of reform in Lombardy, viz. sending him to the court of the Emperor Henry III, had the contrary effect of enabling liim to spread the propa- ganda in Germany. In 1057 the Emperor appointed him to the bisliopric of Lucca. With increased prestige, he reappeared twice in Milan as legate of the Holy See, in 1057 in the company of Hildebrand, and in 1059 with St. Peter Damiani. Under the able generalship of this saintly triumvirate the reform forces were held well in hand, in preparation for the inevitable conflict. The decree of Nicholas II (10.59), by which the right of papal elections was virtually vested in the College of Cardinals, formed the issue to be fought and decided at the next vacancy of the Apostolic Throne. The death of Pope Nicholas two years later found both parties in battle array. The candidate of the Hildebrandists, endorsed by the cardinals, was the Bishop of Lucca; the other side put fonvard the name of Cadalus, Bisliop of Parma, a protector and example of the prevailing vices of the age. The cardinals met in legal form and elected Anseiin, who took the name of Alexander II. Before proceeding to his enthronization, the Sacred College notified the German Court of their action. The Ger- mans were considered to have forfeited the privilege of confirming llie election, reserved to their king with studied vagueness in the decree of Nicholas II, when they cont<Miiptuously disini.s.sed the ambassador of the cardinals without a hearing. Foreseeing a civil war, the cardinals on 30 September completed the election by the ceremony of enthronization. Mean- while a deputation of the Roman nobles, who were enraged at their elimination as a dominant factor in the papal elections, joined by deputies of the unre- formed episcopate of Lombardy, had proceeded to the German Court with a request for the royal sanction to a new election. The Empress Agnes, as regent for her ten-year-old son, Henry IV, convoked an assembly of lay and clerical magnates at Basle; and here, without any legal right, and without the pres- ence of a single cardinal, the Bishop of Parma was declared Pope, and took the name of Honorius II (28 October). In the contest which ensued. Pope Al- exander was supported by the consciousness of the sanctity of his cause, by public opinion clamouring for reform, by the aid of the allied Normans of southern Italy, and by the benevolence of Beatrice and Matilda of Tuscany. Even in Germany things took a favourable turn for him, when Anno of Cologne seized the regency, and the repentant Empress withdrew to a convent. In a new diet, at Augsburg (Oct., 1062), it was decided that Burchard, Bishop of Halberstadt, should proceed to Rome and, after investigating the election of Alexander on the spot, make a report to a later assemblage of the bishops of Germany and Italy. Burchard's report was entirely in fi.vour of Alexander. The latter defended his cause with elo- quence and spirit in a council held at Mantua, at Pentecost. 10(i4 (C. Wile, Benzos Panegyricus, Mar- burg, 1856), and was formally recognized as legiti- mate Pope. His rival was excommunicated, but kept up the contest with dwindling prospects till his death in 1072. During the darkest hours of the schism Alexander and his chancellor. Cardinal Hilde- brand, never for a moment relaxed their hold upon the reins of government. In striking contrast to his helplessness amidst the Roman factions is his lofty attitude towards the potentates, lay and clerical, of Europe. Under banners blessed by him, Roger ad- vanced to the conquest of Sicily, and William to the conquest of England. His Regesta fill ele'en pages of Jaffe (Regesta Rom. Pontif., 2d ed., 4, nos. 4459- 4770). He was omnipresent, through his legates, punishing simoniacal bishops and incontinent clerics. He did not spare even his protector. Anno of Cologne, whom he twice summoned to Rome, once in 1068, to do penance, barefoot, for holding relations with the antipope, and again in 1070 to purge himself of the charge of simony. A similar discipline was ad- ministered to Sigfried of Mainz, Hermann of Bam- berg, and Werner of Strasburg. In his name his legate. St. Peter Damiani, at the Diet of Frankfurt, in 1089, under threat of excommunication and ex- clusion from the imperial throne, deterred Henry IV from the project of divorcing his queen. Bertha of Turin, though instigated tliereto by several German bishops. His completest triumph was that of com- pelling Bishop Charles of Constance and Abbot Robert of Reichenau to return to the King the croziers and rings they had obtained through simony. One serious quarrel with Henry was left to be de- cided by his successor. In 1069 the Pope had re- jected as a simonist the subdeacon Godfrey, whom Henry had appointed Archbishop of Milan; Henry failing to acquiesce, the Pope confirmed Atto, the choice of the reform party. Upon the king's order- ing his appointee to be consecrated, Alexander fulminated an anathema against the royal ailvisers. The death of the Pope, 21 April, 1073, left Hilde- brand, his faithful chancellor, heir to his triumphs and difficulties, .lexander deserved well of the English Church by elevating his ancient teacher, Lanfranc of Bee (q. v.), to the See of Canterbury; and appointing him Primate of England. DuciiK.sNi: (oil.). LiJ>. Pontif.. II. 281, S.W-SeO; BahonidS; Ann. Keel, ad <inn. 1061, . 1073, 12; Marocco, Storia di Aksanndro II (Turin, 18S6); Delarc, Le ponti;lcat d'Alex. II, in Rev. den quest, hist. (Jan., 1888); Id.. St. Gnooire VII (189), TI. 161-.526; DE MoNTOR, Lives o) the Roman Pontiffs (New York, 1867), I, 290-294. James F. Loughlin.