Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/342

This page needs to be proofread.
302

ALEXANDRIA 302 ALEXANDRIA a blessing. They suffered many bitter persecutions under successive Moslem rulers. Many among the clergy and laity apostatized. Nor did the Melchites escaiie. Indeed they were worse off, ground as tliey were between the upper and nether millstones, the" Jacobites and the Saracens. When their pa- triarchate was restored (727), under Cosmas, in the caliphate of N'ischam, their situation was deplorable. Through the exertions of this patriarch they got back many of their churches. Ignorance and in- dolence, however, had spread among the Melchites. In the services of the Church the Greek language was soon wholly replaced by the Arabic, and when, in the beginning of the ninth century, the Venetians carried away to their own city the body of St. Mark, the ruinous" patriarchate was hardly more than a name. With the Jacobites matters were not much better. There was a succession of undistinguished patri- archs, except at intervals, when the see was vacant because of internal disputes. Persecution was frequent, and renegades were numerous. By the eleventh century Alexandria had ceased to be the sole place where the patriarch was consecrated. From this date Cairo claimed that honour alter- nately with Alexandria, though the enthronement took place in the latter city. A little later, during the patriarchate of Christodulus (Abd-el-Me.ssiah), Cairo became the fixed and official residence of the Jacobite patriarch. In the beginning of the reign of Saladin (1169) a serious controversy arose be- tween tlie Jacobite Patriarchs of Antioch and those of Alexandria, concerning the use of auricular con- fession. The Jacobite parties of the two patri- archates had for many years kept in close touch with one another. More than once their relations were strained, as happened particularly in the time of John X (Barsusan) of Antioch, and Christodulus (Abd-el-Messiah) of Alexandria. They fell out over the proper preparation of the Eucharistic oblations, in which the Syrian Jacobites were in the habit of mingling a little oil and salt. (Neale, Patriarchate of Alex., II, 214). Christodulus insultingly re- jected the practice. John of Antioch wTOte in its defence. The new controversy about the use of auricular confession severed the once friendly rela- tions of the two communions. Mark, son of Kunbar, and his successor, Cyril of Alexandria, were f"r abolishing the practice altogether, while Michael of Antioch as vigorously insisted upon its continu- ance (Renaudot, Liturg. Orient. , II, 50, 44S; Historia Patr. Jacobit. Alex., 550; Neale, op. cit., II, 261). For twenty years (1215-35) the Jacobites were without a patriarch, because they could not agree among themselves. During this break in the Jacobite succession, Nicholas I, the Melchite pa- triarch, addressed an appeal to Pope Innocent III (1198-1216), imploring his good offices with the Templars and Hospitallers in favour of some Chris- tian captives (Neale, op cit., II, 279). A few years later (1221), when Damietta had fallen into the hands of the Saracens, Nicholas wrote again to the Pope, Ilonorius III (1216-27), for assistance in the struggles that were fast overwhelming his Church. We may note here that the revolutions which sub- sequently befell the (ireek Empire of Constantinople had little effect on the fortvmcs of the Church of Alexandria. The same may be said of the Crusades; though closely connected with local Alexandrian history, they do not .seem to have had much influ- ence upon its internal ecclesiastical affairs. There is little left to chronicle of the Jacobite and -Melchite communions of the Church of Alexan- dria. Botli suffered severely in the cnishing perse- cution of the fourteenth centiry. The Jacobites, utterly demoralized, managed to continue the sic- cession of their patriarchs, who, as we have seen. resided no longer in Alexandria, but in old Cairo. In its widest extension, the patriarchate included fifteen bishoprics, and laid claim to jurisdiction over all the Coptic Christians of Egypt, Abyssinia, Nubia, and Barbary, or the native tribes of northern Africa. During this dark period the Melchites fell more and more under the influence of the Byzantine patri- archs, and thus sank ever deeper into the Greek schism. Their patriarch, a mere shadow of what he once was, resides at Stamboul, and glories in the title of "Patriarch of Alexandria and CKcumeni- cal Judge ". It is an empty title, since he is supreme pastor over only five thousand souls, and where formerly more than one hundred bishops acknowl- edged the jurisdiction of the patriarch of Alexandria, only four now form the synod of the "OCcumenical Judge". They are the Bishops of Ethiopia, Mem- phis, Damietta, and Rosetta. It will not be out of place to treat briefly of the Latin patriarchate of the Church of Alexandria. Since the seventh century the patriarchate, as we have seen, was divided between the Jacobites and the Melchites, both of which bodies eventually became schismatical. Among the patriarchs a few had courted the friendship of Rome, but none seems to have entered into full communion with her. There were, however, some Christians, as there are to-day, who were in no sense schismatical, but remained in full communion with the Holy See. It was doubtless in their behalf that in the pontifi- cate of Innocent 111(1198-1216) a patriarch of the Latin rite was appointed for Alexandria. The time seemed favourable for such an appointment, be- cause of the progress of the Crusades. The actual date is, however, uncertain. Sollerius (Acta SS., Jun. vii, 1887), and the "Lexicon Biblicum" of Simon, quoted by him, speak of a "S. Athanasius Claro- montanus pro Latinis, A. D. 1219 ". There is no further mention of this patriarch, nor is it certai/i that he was the first incumbent of the Latin patri- archate. We say it is not certain, because the date of appointment, or perhaps of the consecration, of Athanasius, as given by Sollerius, is 1219, whereas the establishment of the Latin patriarchate oc- curred in 1215. This is clear from the Twelfth General Council (Fourth Lateran), held in that year (Labbe, xi., 153). Neale (op. cit., II, 288) gives a list of the Latin patriarchs, and heads it with the name of Giles, a Dominican friar appointed in 1310 by Clement V. From this on he follows Sollerius (Acta SS., loc. cit.), who gives us the names of the Latin patriarchs from 1219 to 1547. After the loss of the Holy Land and the overthrow of all Latin domination in the Byzantine Empire, the Latin Patriarchate of Alexandria ceased to exist except as a mere titular dignity (Wcrnz, Jus Decre- talium, p. 837). In 1895, Pope "Leo XIII established a patriarchate of the Coptic rite with two suffragan sees, Minieh and Luksor, for the Copts in conununion with the Holy See (Monit. Eccles., ix, part. 1, 225). Vansleb, Hiatoire de fegiise (T .Uexandrie (Paris. 1677); I.E QuiKN. Oricna Christianus (Paris. 1740), II, 329-512, III, 114I—1G: Renaudot, Historia Patriorchnrum Aleiandr, Jacobitarum (Paris, 17131; Sollerius, De Patriarchit Aleian- drinis. in Acta ss. Jun. vii (ed. Paris, 1807) Mokini, D* Patriarcharum et Primatum origine, in his Exercit. Select. (Paris, 1669); Edtvciiius (Melchite Patriarch of Alexnmlria. 933-940). Alexandrina Ecclesice Origines (ed. Pococke, Oxon., 1(558); Nealh. The Patriarchate ii[ Alexandria, (2 vols. Lon- don. 1847); Macaire, Hut. de Vtgli»e dAlei. depuii Saint Marc jusqu'U noa joura (Cairo, 1894). The ecclesiastical aiitiquitie.s of Alexandria are treated at lenirth by Lb- CLERCQ in Diet, d'archiiil. chrct. el de lit.. I, 1098-1182; cf. iliitl. (1177-82) an extensive bibliography, also in Chevalier, Rip. dea Sourcea hiat. (Topo-Bibl.), I, 49-52. Joseph M. oods. Alexandria, The Diocese of, suffragan of Kings- ton, Ont. It comprises the counties of Glcngarrv and Stormont. and was created a diocese by Leo XIII, by the Decree "In hac sublimi", 23 Jan., li^30. It has