Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/345

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ALEXANDRINE sing, cry out, pniiso 'I'licc, iuid say: Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of liost.s ". And then :d()nd he goes on: "■Sanctify all of us and receive our i)niise, who with all who sanctify Thee, Lord jind Master, sing and say" (and the people continue): "Holy, holy, holy is the Lord." After the long Preface theC'anon up to the words of Institution is very short. The priest, as u.sual, takes up the people's words and almost at once conies to Our Lord, (!otl, and great King (TTa^/SacriXfi/s), Jesus Christ, who in the night in which he gave himself to a most dreadful death for our sins, taking bread in His holy, pure, and inunacu- lato hands, and looking up to heaven to Thee, His Father, our (lod and Ciod of all things, gave thanks, hlcssiil, broke, and gave it to His holy and blessed Disciples and Apostles, saying [aloud]: Take, eat [the deacon tells the concelcbrating priests to stretch out their hands], for this is My liody, broken and given for you for tlio forgiveness of sins." R. Amen. The words of Institution of the Chalice are said in the same way. The priest lifts up his voice at the end, saying: "Drink of this all"; the deAcon says: "Again stretch out your hands", and the priest con- tinues: "this is My Blood of the Now Testament, shed for you and for numy and given for the for- giveness of sins." R. Amen. "Do this in memory of Me, ..." .Vnd the Anamimnesis follows, referring to Our Lord's death, resurrection, ascension, and second coming and going inunediately on to the Epiklesis: "Send down upon us and upon this bread anci chalice Thy Holy Cihost that He as Almighty God may bless and perfect them [aloud] and make this bread the Body. R. Amen. ". d this chalice the IJlood of the New Testament, the IJlood of Our Lord, and God, and Saviour, and great King, Jesus Christ." . . . Tlie Epiklesis ends with a doxology to which the people answer: ".s it was and is". Then follow the Our Father, said first by the priest silently and then aloud by the people, with the usual iMiiboiismos, the Inclination before the Blessed Sacrament — the deacon says: "Let us bow our heads before the Lord", and the peojile answer: "Before Thee O Lord"; the Klevation with the words: "Holy things to the Holy"; and the answer: "One Holy Father, one Holy Son, one Holy Ghost, in the union of the Holy Ghost. Amen". Then come the Breaking of the Bread, during which Psalm d (Laudatc Dnminum in sanclis eiu-s) is sung, and the Com- munion. The form of Communion is: "The holy Body" and then "the precious Blood of Our Lorcl, God and Saviour". A short thank.sgiving follows, and the people are dismissed with the blessing quoted from II Cor., xiii, 13. Some more prayers are said in the Diakonikon, and the liturgy ends with the words: "Blessed be God who, sanctifies, pro- tects, and keeps us all through the share in His holy mysteries. He is bles.sed for ever. Amen." The characteristic points of this rite are the nine Kyrie eleisons at the beginning, the OITertorj' prayers said at the altar instead of at the Prothesis, and especially the place of the great Supplication before the Sanctus. This last circumstance causes the Consecration to occur much later in this Liturgy than in any of the others. It should be noted that the place of the Supplication is a dilliculty in the Roman .Miiss. Wo say part of it (for the Church, Pope, and Mishop, the Mcmrnto Vivoriim and Communicantcii) U'fore, and part (Memento Dejtnctnrum, Kohis quoque prcraloribu.i) after the Consecration. In the An- tiochene use, and in all those derived from it, the whole Supplication conies after the Epiklesis. It has been suggested that the explanation of these dilTerences is that originally everj'where the deacon Ix'gan to read out the chiuses of the Supplication as soon ;vs the priest had begun the Eucharistic Prayer. They would then go on saying their part.s togetlier, the deacon being interrupted by the words said aloud by the priest. The pf)iiit at which the Supplication ends would then depend on its length; and if eventu- ally that point (at which the priest sums up its in a collect) were taken as its place in the liturg)', it might occur before the Con-secration (as at Alexan- dria), or after it (as at Antioch), or the Supplication might still be said partly before and partly after (as at Home). The Roman use, then, woulcl repre- sent an intermediate stage of development (cf. A. (!astou6 in Cabrol, Diet, d'arch. chr^t. et de liturgie, Paris, 1904). But the parallels between the Roman and Alexandrine uses are too obvious not to suggest a common source for these Liturgies. There is the Kyrie elcison, said nine times in groups of three, as soon as the priest stands at the altar, just before the Trisagion which more or less corresponds to our Gloria in excelsis. There are, moreover, clauses and e en whole prayers whose common origin with those cf our Canon cannot be doubted. As an example, let the prayer said after the reading of the diptychs of the dead be compared with our Su])rn qucB and Suppticcs te Toijamiis. In St. Mark's liturgy it is: " Receive, O God, the Sacrifice, offerings, and Eucharist of thy servants on Thy holy, heavenly, and spiritual altar in the height of Heaven by the ministrj" of thy archangels ... as Thou didst receive the gifts of Thy just Abel and the sacrifice of our father Abra- ham. ..." There are other parallel passages no less striking; so that, in spite of likenesses between the Roman Canon and the Syrian Anaphora, it is with this Egy[)tian Liturgj' that ours is generally supposed to have had a common source (Duchesne, Origines, p. 54). Socrates and Sozomen notice some peculiarities of the Alexandrine Patriarchate in the fifth centurj'. On Wednesdays and FVidays the Liturgy was not celebrated (Socr., V, xxii, who says this is a most ancient custom). In this case, too, Alexandria and Rome follow the same practice, whereas that of all the other Eastern Churches is different (Duchesne, Origines, p. 220). The first two sees also agreed in having no Alass on Saturday; in other parts of Egypt there was a Liturgy of the Presanctified, and pcojile received Holy Com- munion on Saturday evening, not fasting (Socr., ib., Soz., VH, xix, nv<rTi)pluy utT^xovai). TuK Greek I^iturgy, Manx-scripts. — There are no very old manuscripts of this use; theearhest i.s a large fragment written in the twelfth century, and kept in the University Library of Mes- sina (gr. n. 177). The Vatican Library contains a llurteenth- century manuscript of ttie wtiole Liturgy tgr. 1970). which has become tlie base of the Uxtus rrreptua anil i.s reproiiuced by Kwainson and lirightnmn. Ttiere are also a tnanuscript of the year 13)7 (liibl. Vat. gr. 22.S1) and a fragment of the twelfth or thirteenth century at Mount Sinai, with an .^rn- hie translation in the margin. Printed Editions. — 'H Seta XetTovpyla tou aylov diroffT&Xov Kal «i)o77«Xi<rTo5 MdpKov fia0r]Tou ToO ayiov ll^rpov (Paris, 1583). e<Iited by John a S. Andrea (deSaint-, drL^e). This is therf/i/io prtnrrpd. It is reprinted by Pronto Drr.Ers (Pronton leDoc), Bibliolhfca vrt. patrum (Paris, iri24): Renaudot, Liturfjiarum OrienlnUum collrclio (ed. II, Frankfort, 1847). I, 120-148; Assemani, Codex liturfjicwt reel, universalis (Home. 17.'j4), 'II, 1 sqq.; Neale, Telratoiria lilurqica (London, 1840); Daniel, CW. liturg. reel. univ. (Leipzig. 1853), IV, 134 sqq.; Swainson, The Greek Liturgiet (Cambridge. 1884), 2-73; Briohtman, Liturgies Eastern and HVii(mi (Oxford, 189(1). I, 113-143; Neale and Littledale. The Liturgies of St. Mark, St. James, SI. Clemrnl. St. Chrysostom, SI. Basil (London. 1875). 5-31. Thansi.atkins. — The edition of John a S. Andrea contains a Latin version since reproduced by Assemani. HenaI'Dot, etc. English versions in Brett. .4 Colleeliim of the Prineival Liturgies (London. 1720). 20-41; Neai.e. Ilistary of the Holy Eastern Chureh (London, 1850), I. 532-570; The LUurgirs of S. Mark. S. James. S. Clement. S. Chrysostom, S. Basil, and of the Christians of Malabar (Londoii, 1859). German vcr.sions in PnolisT, Liturgie Her drei erslen ehri*tliehrn Jahrhuruferte (Tiibingen. 1870), 318-334; Storfe, Die grieehitehrn Liturgicn (Kempten, 1877), 84-116. III. The Coptic Liti^rgiks. — After the Monophy- site schism the Copts compo.sed a numlwr of liturgies in their own language. Three of these became the most important and are still used: those of St. Cvril, St. Gregorj' (of Nazianzus), and St. Basil. They