Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/346

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ALEXIAN 306 ALEXIANS differ only in the Anaplioras which are joined to a common "Preparation and Mass of the Catetliumens. The Anaphora of St. Cyril, also called that of St. Mark, together with the" part of the liturgy that is common to all, corresponds exactly to the Greek St. Mark. When it was translated into Coptic a great part of the formulas, such as the Trisagion, the deacon's litany, said at the beginning of the Mass of the Faithful, nearly all the short greetings like elpvinj Traa-if S.vu v/jlui/ Tas Kapdlas- ra cLyia rors 07(015, and everj'thing said by the people had already become universally known in Greek. These parts were then left in that language, and they are still written or printed in Greek, although in Coptic characters, throughout the Coptic Liturgy. A few prayers have been added to the original Greek Liturgy, such as a very definite act of faith in the Real Presence said by the priest before his Com- munion. There are also Greek versions of the other two Coptic Anaphoras: those of St. Basil and St. Gregory. The Coptic Liturgies. Manuscripts. — The Vatican Li- brary contains a manuscript of the Anaphoras of St. Basil, St. Gregory, and St. Cyril of the year 1288 (Vat. Copt. XVII), as also others of the fourteenth, fifteenth, and seventeenth centuries. For the hst of other manuscripts (all quite recent) see Bright- man, op cit., LXX. Printed Texts, — TuKi, Miasale Coptice et Arabia (Rome, 1736— for the Uniates). The Kulaji (Eucho- logion) and Diikonikon are published at Cairo in Coptic and Arabic (at the El-Watan office, a?ra martyrum, 1603, a. d. 1887). Translations. — Latin in Scialach, Liturgiw Basilii magni, Gregorii theologi, Cyrilli alexandrini ex arabico converecB (Augsburg, 1604), reprinted in Renaudot, op. cit., I, 1-25, 25- 37, 38-51, AssEMANi, op. cit., VII. etc. English in Malan, Original Documents of the Coptir Church (London, 1875); Bute, The Coptic Morning Service for the Lord's Day (London, 1882); Neale, History of the Holy Eastern Church (London, 1850), I, 381 sqq.; Rodwell, The Liturgies of S. Basil, S. Gregory, and S. Cyril, From a Coptic manuscript of the XIII cfw^urj/ (London, 1870): Brightman, op. cit., 144-188. IV. The Ethiopic Liturgies. — In her liturgies, as in everything else, the Church of Abyssinia de- pends on the Coptic Patriarchate of Alexandria. The normal and original Ethiopic use is the "Liturgy of the Twelve Apostles", which is the Coptic St. Cyril done into their own language. The Abyssinians have also a number of other Anaphoras (ten or fifteen) as- cribed to various people such as St. John the Evan- gelist, the 318 Fathers of Nica;a, St. John Chrysos- tom, etc., which they join to the first part of their J>iturgy on various occasions instead of its own Canon. The Ethiopic Liturgies. Manuscripts. — The Vatican li- brary contains manuscripts of Anaphoras (Vat. Ethiop., XIII, XVI, XXII, XXVIII, XXIX, XXXIV, XXXIX, LXVI. LXIX): the British Museum has a seventeenth-century manu- Bcript of the Ordo Communis with various Anaphoras (Or. 545) and there are others and fragments at Paris and Berlin, all as late as the seventeenth century. Printed Texts. — Swainson, op cit., 349-395; although this is described as the Coptic Ordi- nary Canon of the Mass, it is the Ethiopic Pre-anaphoral ac- cording to the Brit. Mus. MS. 545 (see Brightman, op. cit., Ixxii). Petrds Ethtops (sic), Testamentum novum . . . Mis- sale cum benedictions incensi, cerce, etc. (Rome, 1548), 158-167 — for the Uniates; this contains the Ordo communis and the Anaphora of the Twelve Apostles. Translations. — Latin in I'Krnus Ethyops (op. cit); Renaudot (op. cit.), I, reprints it 472-495. The Bullarium patronatus PortogallicE regum in eccle- siis Afririr (Li.sbon, 1879) contains versions of the Anaphora of Our Lady Mary and Dioscor; Dillman, Chrestomalhia ^thiopiea (Leipzig, 1800), gives that of St. John Chrysostom, 51-56. V. The Phesent Use. — Of these three groups two, the Copts and Abyssinians, still keep their own liturgies. The Copts use that of St. Basil through- out the year on Sundays and weekdays, and for requiems; on certain great feasts they substitute the Anaphora of St. Gregory; that of St. Cj;ril is kept for Lent and Christmas lOve. This order is common to the Monophysite and Uniate Copts. Very soon after the Arabs conquered Egypt (641) their lan- guage became the only one used even by the Chris- tians; in less than two centuries Coptic had become a completely dead language. For this reason the rubrics of the Coptic liturgical books have for a long time been written in Arabic as well; sometimes Arabic translation.s of the prayers are added too. The books needed for the Liturgy are the Khulaji (fixobyiov) , Kidtnarus (Kara, ixipos) , a lectionary containing the lessons from Holy Scripture, the Si/naxar (o-wa^dpioy), which contains legends of saints, sometimes read instead of those from the Acts of the Apostles, and the " Book of the Jlinistry of the Deacons" (Brightman, Ixvii). The Coptic and Abyssinian L^niates have books specially printed for them, which differ from the others only inasmuch as the names of Monophysites are omitted, that of Chalcedon is inserted, and the Filioque is added to the Creed. The Orthodox Church of Egj-pt has long sacrificed her own use for that of Constantinople. For a time after the Monophysite schism she still kept the Liturgy of St. Mark in Greek. But there were very few Orthodox left in the country; they were nearly all officials of the Imperial government, and, after the Arab conquest especially, the influence of Constantinbple over them, as over the whole Ortho- dox world, grew enormously. So eventually they followed the (Ecumenical Patriarch in their rites as in everything else. The Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria even went to live at Constantinople under the shadow of Caesar and of Caesar's Court Bishop. The change of liturgy took place at the end of the twelfth century. Theodore Balsamon says that at that time a certain Mark, Patriarch of Alexandria, came to Constantinople and there went on celebrat- ing the Liturgy of his own Church. The Byzantines told him that the use of the most holy Quumenical throne was different, and that the Emperor had already commanded all Orthodox Churches through- out the world to follow that of the Imperial city. So Mark apologized for not having known about this law and conformed to the Byzantine use (P. G., CXXXVIII, 954). Since then the Greek Liturgy of St. Mark has no longer been used by anyone. It remains to be seen whether, now that the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem has begun to make some small restoration of her own use (see Antiochene Litvugy), the very determined and strongly anti-Phanariote prelate who rules the Orthodox Church of Egypt (Lord Photios of Alexandria) will not revive, at any rate for one day in the year, the venerable liturgy of his own see. Dissertations. — Besides the introductions and notes in Renaudot, Brightman, Swainson, Prod.st, Neale, Lord Bute (op. cit.), Probst, Liturgie des IV. Jahrhunderts (Mons- ter, 1893 106-124, reconstructions from St. Athanasius, Pseudo-Dionysius, etc.; Butler, The Ancient Coptic Churches of Egypt (Oxford, 18841; Ewetts and Butler, The Churches and Monasteries of Enypt (Oxford, 1S95); Ewetts, Rites of the Coptic Church (London, 1888); Ludolf, Historia ^thiopica (Frankfort, 1681); Le Brun, Explication de la Messe (Paris, 1788), IV, 469-518, 519-579; Bent, The Sacred City of the Ethiopians (London, 1893). Adrian Fortescue. Alezian Nuns. — Early in the fifteenth century religious women began to be affiliated to the Alexian Brotherhood (see below). The.se sisters adopted the Rule of St. Augustine and ilevotcd ihcnisclvos to the same corporal works of mercy as those of the Brothers of St. Alexius, or Cellites. Their habit is black, with a mantle of the same colour and a white cap, whence their common name of "black sisters". The black, or Cclhtine, sisters at present have their mother- house at Cologne. They are not represented in the list of religious women established in the United States and Canada. Schlosser in Kirchcnter. Alexlans, or Cei-i.ites, a religious institute or con- gregation, which had its origin at Mechlin, in Brabant, in the fifteenth century, during the terrible ravages of a pest c.iUed the "black death". Certain laymen united under the guidance of a man named Tobiaa