ALLARD 317 ALLATinS remarkable for two important events in the history of Allahabad. The first was the holding of the Diocesan Synod in tlie cathedral. The second was that the mission was entrusted by the Sacred C'on- prcpation of Propaganda to the t'apudiin Province of Holopia. Italy. In 1892, the districts of Clmpra, MozalTorpur, iJarbhunga, Bcttiah, and a part of the Uhagalpiir and Mungliyr districts, and the Kingdom of Nepal were niatle the Prefecture Apostolic of Hettiah and Nepal. On 9 July, 1890, Dr. Prancis Pcsci, Bislinp of .Mlaliabad, died at Lyons, France. Father Charles Oentili was chosen to be his successor, 29 March. 1897. He was consecrated on 29 June of the .same year and transferred to Agra, 27 August, 1898. t)n the corresponding date of the following vear, Father Victor Sinibaldi was nominated bishop, and consecrated, 30 November, 1899. His pastoral rule was short-lived, as he died, 5 January, 190J. On the lOth and 12th of November, 1903, the first General Congre.s.s a.s,sembled at Allahabad, at which were present two archbishops, one bishop, two administrators-apostolic, one prefect-apostolic, three superiors-regular, thirty priests, and more than 200 delegates. When ifishop Sinibaldi died. Father Petronius Gramigna ruled the dioce-se in the capacity of administrator, from 1902 to 10 August, 1904, wlien he was nominated bisliop, and conse- crated in St. Joseph's catliedral, 18 October, 1904. The Catholic population of the diocese is 8,800, out of a total of 38,174,000, mostly composed of Mu.ssulmans and Hindus. Penares, the sacred city of the latter, and the centre of their religious activity, lies within the limits of the diocese. There are in tlie mission 22 Capuchin Fathers, 3 secular priests, 18 Christian Brotliers, 2 Profilers of the Third Order of St. Francis, 74 nuns of the Institute of the B. V. M., 9 Loretto nuns, 7 Sisters of the Tliird Order of St. Francis. There are six orphanages, male' anil female, with about 4.50 boys and girls. The number of edu- cational establishments Is 4, consisting of colleges, convents, high schools, boarding- and day-schools, witli I,4liS pupils of both sexes. Calholir Ciitindar ami Ijirecloru uj Ihe Diocese of Allahabad; Thc^Miulma Catholic Directory; The Life of the Right Ret'. Dr. Hartmann; Quadroa Biographicoa doa Padrea llluatrea de Goa. Manoel D'S.. AUard, P.ul, archaeologist and historian, b. at Rouen l.i Septemlx>r, 1841, admitted to the bar and practised law for a short time in his native city, where he became a judge of the civil court. His literarv' and historical tastes induced him to abandon his profession and devote hini.self to the study of the historj' of the Church in the first four centuries. He contributed frequently to the "Revue des Questions Historiqucs ", of which he became editor in 1904, and to various other publications. In 1874 he trans- lated Northcoteand Brownlow's" Roma Sot tcrranea", made many additions to it, and enriched it with valuable notes. An intimate acquaintance with Giovanni Battista De Rossi and his own studies along various lines, led him to undertake a his- torj' of the persecutions suffered by the Christians at the hands of the Roman authorities. The work was planned on very broad lines and cxecute<l with a remarkable degree of minuteness and finality. The author was well fitted for his tiusk; his sym- pathies were Catholic and his reading extensive; he had a minute knowledge of Christian arch.Tologj", especially in regard to the Roman Catacombs; he had studied the condition of the Christian slaves, and had a thorough acquaintance with epigraphy and the administrative and constitutional history of Rome. Above all he was well acquainted witli the history and spirit of Roman law, and was com- (x-tent to pronounce judgment on the delicate legal questions involved in the history of the relations between the Christian Church and the Roman State during the era of the persecutions. On this sub- ject his researches have done much to elucidate dilficult and debatable points, though his conclusions have not been generally accepted. The main idea of M. Allard's "History of the Persecutions" is that the Christians were unjustly treated by the Roman authorities. He will not admit that there was any incompatibility Iwtween the spread of Christianity and the permanence of the Roman Empire, though the acceptance of Christianity by the people neces- sarily implied the final eradication of the old Roman cults ami superstitions. The action of the Roman authorities he regards as ill-advised and brutal. Their treatment of the Christians arose from no rea.sons of statesmanship or adherence to traditional policy, but was based entirely on low and unworthy motives. The causes of the persecutions he finds in the blind hatred of the Roman authorities against this "third race", in fanaticism, popular fury, or, as in the case of Maximus and Decius, verj' largely in private spleen. If any fault can be found with the work of Allard, it is that ho appears too ready to accept as contemporary historical sources mere legends and trailitions. He followed the example of I.e Riant in thinking that most legends and Acta contained some kernel of truth. He is not suffi- ciently radical in his criticism of the "Acta Mar- tyrum" and of other documents, e. g. the "De Mortibus Persecutorum", of Lactantius, all the as- sertions of which he seems to accept as testimony of the first order. He leans too strongly to the side of conservatism, and the scientific value of many pages of his work is spoiled by his reluctance to deal xinsparingly with dubious and spurious Acta and Passioncs. Many instances of this kind might Ije pointed out, as for example the account of the death of St. Irenxus, the story of Symphorosa, etc. These remarks, however, do not apph' to his work on Julian the Apostate, in which he shows more discrimination in the use of his hagiographical material; it is con- sequently the most valuable of his writings. His principal works are: "Rome souterraine" (Paris, 1874); ," Lcs esclaves Chretiens depuis les premiers temps de I'Eglise jusquiV la fin ac la domination romaine en Occident" (Paris, 1876); "L'art paien sous les empereurs chr^tiens" (Paris, 1879); "His- toire des persecutions pendant les deux premiers siMes" (2d ed., Paris, 1892); "Histoire des pers(5- cutions jxjiidant la premiere moiti6 du troisieme si^de" (Paris, 1881); "La persecution de DiocMtien et le trioinphe de I'Eglise ' (2 vols., Paris, 1890); "Le Christianisme et I'empire romain" (Paris, 1896); "Etudes d'histoire et d'arch6ologie" (Paris, 1898); "St. Basile" (ibid., 1S99); "Julien I'apos- tat", 2 vols, (ibid., 1900). Patrick J. Healy. Allatius (.Vlacci), Leo, a learne<l Greek of the seventeenth century, b. on the island of Chios in l.')S(5. anil d. at Rome, 19 January. 1669. He en- tered the Greek college at Rome in IGOO, spent three years in Lucania with his countrj-man. Bishop Ber- nard Giustiniani, and then returned to Chios where he proved of great assistance to the Latin Bishop, Marco Giustiniani. In 161G, he received the degree Doctor of Medicine from the Sapienza, was maile Scriptor in the Vatican librarj-, and, later, professor of rhetoric at the Greek College, a position which he held for only two years. Pope Gregory XV sent him to Germany, in 1622. to bring to Rome the Pa- latinate library of Heidelberg, which .Maximili.an haii presented to the Pope in return for war subsidies, a ta.sk which he accomplished in the face of great difficulties. In the death of Gregorj- XV (1623) .- latius lost his principal patron: but with the support of influential cnurchmen, he continued his researches,
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