ALLEGIANCE 318 ALLEGRI especially upon the Palatinate manuscripts. Alex- ander Vil made liini custodian of the Vatican library in KKil, where he remained till his death. With un- tirino- cnerpy .llatius combined a vast erudition, which he b'rought to bear upon literary, historical, philosophical, and theological questions. He laboured earnestly to eifect the reconcihation of the Greek Church with that of Rome and to this end wrote his most important work, " De Ecclesiaj Occidentalis atque Orientalis pcrpetua con.sensione" (Cologne, 1648), in which the points of agreement between the Churches are emphasized, while their differences are minimized. He also edited or translated into Latin the writings of various Greek authors, corresponded with the fore- most scholars of Europe, contributed as editor to the "Corpus Byzantinorum" (Paris), and arranged for the publication of a " Bibliotheca Scriptorum Grajco- rum". He bequeathed his manuscripts (about 150 volumes) and his correspondence (over l.OUO letters) to the library of the Oratorians in Rome. Gbadios Lite in Mai, Bibliotheca Nova Patrum (Rome, 1853), VI; Legrand. BMiographie helUniquedu XV 1 1 siMe JVapa. 1893)- Theiner, Die Sckenkung der Hevlelb. Bibl. (Munich, 1844); Lammer, De Leonis Allatii Codicibua (Freiburg, 1864); Herg'enrotbeb, in Kirchenlex. Francis W. Grey. Allegiance, Civil. See Civil Allegiance. Allegiance, Oath op. See Oath of Alleghnce. Allegory in the Bible. See Exegesis. AUegranza, Josei'H, a Milanese Dominican who won distinction as a historian, archaeologist, and antiquary b. 16 October, 1715; d. IS December, 17S5. P'rom 1748 to 1754 he made many researches in northern and central Italy and in France. When put in charge of the Royal Library at Milan, he made a catalogue of its contents, a work which was crowned, in 1775, by the Empress Maria Theresa. His works are: " Spiegazioni e riflessioni sopra alcuni sacri monumenti antichi di Milano" (Milan, 1757); " De sepulcris christianis in a;dibus sacris, — Accedunt inscriptiones sepulcrales christianae saeculo septimo antiquiores in Insubria Austriaca reperta;: item Inscriptiones sepulcrales ecclesiarum atque cedium PP. Ord. Prajd. Mediolani " (Milan, 1773); "De Monogrammate D. N. Jesu Christi, et usitatis ejus effingendi modis" (Milan, 1773); "Opus- coH eruditi latini ed italiani" (Cremona, 1781); " Osservazioni antiquarie, critiche e fisiche, fatte nel regno di Sicilia" (Milan, 1781). Mandonnet in Diet, de thiol, oath. Walter Dwight. AUegri, Antonto, b. in Correggio, a small Lom- bard town near Mantua, 1494; d. 5 March, 1534. His name in history is that of his birthplace, but he is often called "The Master of Parma". Following the custom of the time he latinized his name and signed himself Antonius La;tus. Details in the life of this great master are meagre. Even in 1542 Vasari found no traces of him, no sketch or portrait of him in all Lombardy. Correggio left no writings, had no teachers, no pupils, visited no great art centres, made no acquaintance with his contem- poraries, and never sued the favour of the mighty. His father, it is said, was a small, well-to-do mer- chant, a good, pious citizen who gave his .son an education and the opportunity to become the great artist he proved to be. An uncle " who painted but was no artist" (Dr. Meyer) had no influence on Correggio's artistic life. From 1518 to 1530 he lived chiefly in Parma. In 1519 he married Girolama Francesca di BragVietis, of Correggio, who died in 1529. The next year the artist returned to his native town, where, during the next five years, ho lived a simple, devout and contented life. He wa.s buried in the Franciscan Convent. He left a son, Pomponio, au obscure artist; and the Allcgri family soon became extinct. Correggio's genius unfolded itself in his native village; his few patrons were at Parma, and his only society was the lay Brotherhood of the Benedictines. He ranks with the greatest Italian masters, althougli some authori- ties incline to place him at the head of the Decadent or "Sweet" School of Italian painting. The early works of Correggio are "in style of the Ferrarese School" (Jean Paul Richter); and later he was slightly influenced by Mantegna and Da Vinci. But his mature style is peculiar to himself and the princi- ples of his art prevailed in painting and sculpture in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries over all Italy and France. Then there was a School of Correggio, and he had a host of imitators. Correggio is the most skilful artist since the ancient Greeks in the art of foreshortening; and, indeed, he was master of every technical device in painting, being the first to introduce the rules of aerial perspective. Radiant light floods his pictures and is so delicately graded that it passes subtly into shade with that play of reflections among the shadows which gives trans- parency in every modulation. This is chiaroscuro. Even in Allegri's earliest works it was prominent, and later he became the acknowledged master of it. His refined feeling made Correggio paint the nude as though from a vision of ideal beauty; the sensuous in life he made pure and beautiful; earthly pleasures he spiritualized, and gave expression to mental beauty, the very culmination of true Art. His angel pictures are a cry of "Sursum Corda!" The age in which he li-ed and worked was partly re- sponsible for this; but his modesty, his retiring disposition, his fondness for solitude, his ideal home- life, his piety, and the fellowship of the Benedictine monks contributed far more to it. Correggio's early works are simple and naive; later, in some of his church frescoes, he is more conventional; but he always possessed a wondrous grasp of figures in perspective di sotto in su, and gave to them un- paralleled movement and grace. He painted angels whose smile was that of happy human love and pictured men in "sublime bliss and in the extremity of great joyousness" (Richter). Among Correggio's greatest works are the noble frescoes in the church of St. Paolo, which rank with the best decorations done in the height of the Re- naissance, though consigned to oblivion for two cen- turies; the frescoes in the cathedral; in the church of St. John; and in the convent of the Benedictine nuns, — all of them in Parma. On seeing these frescoes Titian exclaimed: "Were I not Titian I should wish to be Correggio. " His easel pictures are in every great European gallery. Dresden possesses "The Reading Magdalen", "The Nativity", called "Die heilige Nacht" (the Holy Night), and three Madonnas. In the "Nativity" the light is made to radiate from the Holy Child and illuminate all the other figures and the whole of the picture, a wholly new proceeding in painting and original with Correggio. Concerning the "Reading Magdalen", one of the most popular and most frequently copied pictures in the world, the pre- vailing idea among the critics is that it is not by C'or- reggio. Morelli says: "It is most likely a Flemish work. It is painted on copper, and no Italian artist used copper before the close of the sixteenth century. Director Julius Meyer has already pronounced this picture spurious" [cf. "Italian Masters in German Galleries" (London, 1833), 129-136]. The "Virgin Adoring the Infant Christ" (Uffizi) is an exquisite poem of motherhood, full of all that is tender and sweet in human sentiment. Other celebrated master- pieces are "The Marriage of Saint Catherine" (Louvre); "Madonna in Glory", (Munich); "Danae" (Rome); "Madonna 'del Latte' " (St. Petersburg); "Iv'cc Homo", " Madonna della Cesta ", and "Vieree au Panier" (National Gallery); "Madonna and Holy
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