Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/359

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ALLEORI

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ALLELUIA Infant," called "II Giorno" (Parma); "Noli me tangere" (Madrid); "Ciirist in the Garden of Geth- semane" (Apsley House, London); and the "Ma- donna del Coniglio," or "The Zingarella" (Naples). Ilaluin Mutlirt in Ui-rrmm Gallerirt (l.on.lon, 1883), 12U-13(i. PuNGli.Ko.M. Mt-murie latoriche di Antoniu Allcari ditto tt Correggw (I'anna. 3 vols.. 1817-21). This is slill the staiidur.l work; one of immense research and scope. Ckomf: .m) Cavalcaski.ue, a Nrw lliMury of Painting in Italu (London, 3 vols. 1880); Id., A History of fainting in North Itulii (1S71, 2 voN.); UlcilTCR, in Dohm^'s Kunst und KiinslUr (Leipzig, 1879); .Meyer, Cnrreggio (Leipzig, 1871). Ler;h Hunt. Allegri, GnEQOHio, a nicnibor of the same family wliich produced the painter Corrcggio, b. at Rome c. 1,')80; d. 1G,JJ. He wa-s attadied to the catliedral at Fermo, as a beneficiary priest, ami acteil as chorister and compo.ser. The attention of Pope Ur- ban VHI was drawn to him througli some of liis motets and concerti. and he va.s appointeil, C De- cember, 1620, to fill a vacancy among the singers of the Papal Choir, a i>ost which he held until his death. He reached the dima.x of liis fame wlicn he produced liis nine-voiced " Miserere " for two choirs, the value of which depends almost entirely iipon its execution, in particular upon certain traditional ornaments which give a peculiar, pathetic quality to many pa.ssages, but without which it appears to be a piece of almost hopeless insipidity. Allegri's Christian life was in perfect harmony witli his artistic occupation; he was. says Proske, "a model of priestly piety and humility, a fatlier to the poor, the con.soler of captives aiul the forsaken, a self- sacrificing helper and rescuer of sulTeriiig humanity." His published works consist chiefly of two volumes of "Conoertini" (1618-19), and two of "Motetti" (1621) all printed by Soldi of Rome. But many of his MSS. are containeil in the archives of Sta. Maria in Yallicclla, in the library of the Roman College, and in the collection of the Papal Choir; and the library of the Abb6 Santini contained various pieces by him, including " Magnificats ", "Improperia", "Lamentazioni", and "Motetti". KornmCller, />rx. der kirchl. Tonkumt; Grove, Diet, of Music and Musicians, J. A. VoLKER. Alleluia. — This liturgical mystic expression is found (a) in the Hook of Tobias, xiii, 22; then (b) in the Psalter; for the first time at the head of Psalm civ according to the Vulgate and Septuagint arrange- ment, but at the end of the previous psalm according to the Hebrew text as we have it; after that at the beginning of p.salms of prai.se, as a kind of inviting acclamation, or at the end, as a form of glorj'-giving ovation, or at the beginning and end. as for the last p.salm of all; tlien (c) in the New Testament, only in the relation of St. John's vision of Divine service in Heaven as the worshijvword of Creation (Apoc, xix). In the old Greek version of the Hook of Tobias, in the Septuagint Greek translation of the Hebrew n.salter, and in the original (ireek of the Apocalypse it is tran.scribed 'A)Xoi/ia. In accordance with that most:incit'nt transcription, our Latin Vulgate gives it as AlUiuin in the Old Testament and in the New. Thus it was given in the earliest Cliristian liturgies of which we have reconl. Yet, in place of it, for liturgical use, by way of translation, the Enghsh Reformers put the form of words we now find in the Protestant Psalter and Hook of Common Prayer. The revisers of the authorizetl Anglican version of the Hible have used the form Hallelujah in the Apoca- lypse, xix, 3. To justify this form authors and eilitors of some recent Knglish Protestant biblical publications have adopted a new Cireek form of transcription, 'AWriXovla, instead of 'AXXtjXovio. |See "New Testament in the Original Greek"; text revised by Westcott and Hort (Cambriiige, 18S1). and second edit, of "The Old Testament in Greek According to the Septuagint", by Sweete (1890). For change of form, compare Smith's Diet, of the Hible (new edit., 1893) and Hastings' Diet, of the Hible (1898-1904).] Alleluia, not Hallelujah, is the traditional Christian and proper IJiglish form of transcription. The ac- cent placed as in our liturgical books over u marks its verbal analysis, as that clearly shows in the last line of the Hebrew Psalter: Allelu-ia. It is thus seen to be composed of the divinely acclaiming verbal form Allelu' (verb, 77i1) and the divine pronominal term la (rr). So, preserving its radical sen.se and sound, and even the my.stical suggestiveness of its construc- tion, it may be literally remlered, "All hail to Him Who is!" — taking "AH Hail" as equivalent to "Glorj' in the Highest," and taking "Who is" in the sense in which God said to Moses: "Thus slialt thou say to the children of Israel; Who Is hath sent me to you." As such, when was the expression in- troduced into the Hebrew liturgy? — Hesides rea-sons proper to the text of the P.salter, and those drawn from a purely philological consideration of the word itself, the data of ancient Jewish and Christian tradi- tion all point to the conclusion that it belonged, as a divinely authorized doxology, to the Hebrew liturgy from the beginning. As to when it was first formed, there seems much reason for holding that we have in it man's most ancient expression of devo- tion, most ancient formula of monotheistic faith — the true believer's primitive Credo, primitive iloxol- ogy, primitive acclamation. That in part would explain the Church's remarkable fondness for its liturgical use. As a rule she so uses it wherever joy, consequently triumph, or thanksgiving, is to be emphatically expressed. As to the time of its use, in the Eastern Church it is heard at all seasons of the year; even in Masses for the dead, as it formerly was in the West. There, at present, in the Latin Roman Rite, our own, according to St. Gregory's regulation referred to in his OHice, from Easter to Septuagesima it never leaves the Liturgy, except for some passing occasion of mourning or penance, such as Mass and Office for the Dead, in Ferial Masses during Advent, on the feast of the martyred Holy Innocents (unless it fall on a Sunday), and on all vigils which are fast days, if the Mass of the vigil be said. But it is sung on the vigil of Easter (Holy Saturday) and on that of Pentecost, because on each of those vigils, in early ages, Mass was said at night, and so was regarded as belonging to the joyous solemnity of the following day. During Easter- time it is the characteristic Paschal note of varying Carts of Ma.ss and Office, constantly ajipearing at the eginning and end, and even in the middle, of psalms, as an instinctive exclamation of ecstatic joy. Calmet thus expressed the Catholic view of its traditional import when noting (in P.salm civ) that the very sound of the words should be held to signify "a kind of acclamation and a form of ovation which mere grammarians cannot satisfactorily explain; where- fore the translators of the Old Testament have left it untranslated and, in the same way, the Church has taken it into the fomiuhis of her Liturgj'" — to which we might add, be the language of her Uturgy or of the people who use it at any time or place what it may. ALLELri. IN' Greek Liturgies. — From the Tem- ple, through the Coenaculum's alleluiatic hymn of thank.sgiving, the word passed into the service of the Christian Church, whose liturgical language, like that of the Septuagint and the New Testament, was at first, naturally, Greek. Of course its essential char- acter remained unchanged, but, as an emotional utterance of devotion, it was profoundly affected by Christian memories, and by the .spirit of the Christian Faith. To its original general significance was thus added a new personal sense as Paschal refrain and, with that, among holy words, a mystic meaning all