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ALLERSTEIN

323

ALLIES

and continued their work as before, Allen being soon afterwards elected canon of the Cathedral Chapter. In 1579 he paid his third visit to Rome, being summoned thither in order that he might use his unique personal influence to adjust the dispute between the English and Welsh students at the new college there. It was during this visit that he was appointed a member of the Pontifical Commission for the revision of the Vulgate. Up to this point the career of Allen had won the universal admiration and gratitude of English Catholics, for what he himself termed his "scholastical attempts" to convert England. Such was not, however, the case with his political labours to secure the same end, which may be said to have begun about this time, and were far less successful. The famous Bull "Regnans in excelsis" was issued by Pius V in 1570, deposing Queen Elizabeth, and releasing her subjects from their allegiance, but it did not take practical shape till seventeen years later, when preparations were made for the invasion of England by the King of Spain. Allen was then once more in Rome, whither he had been summoned by the Pope after a dangerous illness two years before. He never left the Eternal City again, but he kept in constant communication with his countrymen in England. It had been due to his influence that the Society of Jesus, to which he was greatly attached, undertook to join in the work of the English mission; and now Allen and Father Parsons became joint leaders of the "Spanish Party" among the English Catholics. The exhortation to take up arms in connection with the Spanish invasion, printed in Antwerp, was issued in Allen's name, though believed to have been composed under the direction of Father Parsons. At the request of King Philip, Allen was created cardinal in 1587, and held himself in readiness to go to England immediately, should the invasion prove successful. In estimating the number of those who would be adherents to the scheme, however, Allen and Parsons were both at fault. The large majority of English Catholics, generously forgetting the past, sided with their own nation against the Spanish, and the defeat of the Armada (1588) was a subject of rejoicing to them no less than to their Protestant fellow countrymen. Allen survived the defeat of the Armada six years. To the end of his life he remained fully convinced that the time was not far distant when England would be Catholic again. During his last years there was an estrangement between him and the Jesuits, though his personal relations with Father Parsons remained unimpaired. In 1589 he co-operated with him in establishing a new English college at Valladolid, in Spain. The same year he was nominated by Philip II Archbishop of Mechlin; but, for some reason which has never been satisfactorily explained, the nomination, although publicly allowed to stand several years, was never confirmed. He continued to reside at the English College, Rome, until his death, 16 October, 1594. He was buried in the chapel of the Holy Trinity adjoining the college. The following is a list of his printed works: "Certain Brief Reasons concerning the Catholick Faith" (Douay, 1564); "A Defense and Declaration of the Catholike Churches Doctrine touching Purgatory, and Prayers of the Soules Departed" (Antwerp, 1565), re-edited by Father Bridgett in 1886; "A Treatise made in defense of the Lawful Power and Authoritie of the Preesthoode to remitte sinnes &c." (1578); "De Sacramentis" (Antwerp, 1565; Douay, 1603); "An Apology for the English Seminaries" (1581); "Apologia Martyrum" (1583); "Martyrium R. P. Edmundi Campiani, S.J." (1583); "An Answer to the Libel of English Justice" (Mons, 1584); "The Copie of a Letter written by M. Doctor Allen concerning the Yeelding up of the Citie of Daventrie, unto his Catholike Majestie, by Sir William Stanley Knight" (Antwerp, 1587), reprinted by the Chetham Society, 1851; "An Admonition to the Nobility and People of England and Ireland, concerning the present Warres made for the Execution of his Holines Sentence, by the highe and mightie Kinge Catholike of Spain, by the Cardinal of Englande" (1588); "A Declaration of the sentence and deposition of Elizabeth, the usurper and pretended Queene of England" (1588; reprinted London, 1842). Among the known ancient portraits of Cardinal Allen are the following: Painting formerly in refectory of the English College, Douay, found after the Revolution in the upper sacristy of the parish church of St. Jacques, now at Douai Abbey, Woolhampton; copy of same at St. Edmund's College, Old Hall; painting formerly the property of Charles Brown Mostyn, Esq., now at Ushaw College, Durham; painting in archiepiscopal palace, Rheims; and a later one, representing him as an old man, at English College, Rome. Also a Belgian print, reproduced in "History of St. Edmund's College", and various reproductions of the above paintings.

Dodd, Ch. Hist. of Eng.; Lingard, Hist of Eng.; Knox, Hist. Introd. to Douay Diaries (1878); Idem, Introd. to Letters and Memorials of Card. Allen (1882); Pitts, De Angliæ Scriptoribus (1619); Memoir in Cath. Direct., 1807; Butler, Hist. Mem. of Eng. Cath. (1819); Gillow, Bibl. Dict. of Eng. Caths.; Dict. of Nat. Biog.; Major Martin Hume, Treason and Plot (1901).

Allerstein (or Hallerstein), August, Jesuit missionary in China, b. in Germany; d. in China, probably about 1777, and consequently after the suppression of the Society. His mathematical and astronomical acquirements recommended him to the imperial court at Pekin, where he won the esteem of the Emperor Kiang-long. who made him a mandarin, and Chief of the Department of Mathematics, a post he held for many years. He has given the world a census of China for the 25th and 26th years of the reign of Kiang-long. His list and the Chinese translation reached Europe in 1779. The work is precious for the reason that the Tatar conquerors objected to census-taking, or at least to census-publication, lest the Chinese might recognize their strength and grow restless. Another element of its value is that it confirms all the calculations of one of his predecessors, Father Amiot (q. v.) and affords a proof of the progressive increase of the Chinese population. In the 25th year he found 196,837,977 souls, and in the following year, 198,214,624. Allerstein's census is to be found in "Déscription Générale de la Chine", p. 283.

Michaud, Biogr. univ., s.v.

Alliance, Evangelical. See Evangelical Alliance.

Alliance, Holy. See Holy Alliance.

Allies, Thomas William, an English writer b. 12 February, 1813; d. 17 June, 1903. He was one in whom the poetical vein was tenderly blended with the philosopher's wisdom. His musings as a boy were uttered in poetry; conabar scribere et versus erat. From a very early age he loved books more than men, or rather he preferred to read of men rather than to deal with them. Circumstances, which fashion lives, but do not make them, played into his hands. For a long time he was an only child; at fourteen he went to Eton, and at sixteen was the first to win the Newcastle Scholarship. His lonely boyhood, his retired home at a country parsonage, and the lack of early companions tended to make him serious. He was born at Midsomer Norton, Somersetshire, England. His father, the Rev. Thomas Allies, was at that time curate of Henbury, in Worcestireshire, later Rector of Wormington, some twelve miles from Cheltenham. His mother, who died a week after his birth, was Frances Elizabeth