ALLOT 326 ALMAGRO 1817)- Desobrv and BicHEi.ET Dirtionnaire genirat, (Varia, 18S7. 'l883)-. Champlin and Perkins, Cydopedia of PainUra and Painting (New York. 1SS7); Brtan. Dictionary of Painters and Enaravert (London and New York, 1903-5). Augustus Van Cleef. Allot, William, a student of the University of Cambridge, retired to I-ouvain on the accession of Elizabeth (15.58), was ordained priest there, but soon returned to England. He was highly esteemed by Mary Queen of Scots, wliom he frequently visited in her prison, suffered imprisonment for his faitli, and was banislied. At Mary's request he was made a canon of St. Quentin in Picardy (France). He died about 1.590, and left a worl< entitled "Thesaurus Bibliorum, omnein ufriusque vitae antidotum secun- dum utriusque Instrument! veritatem et historiam succincte complectens ", with which is printed an "Index rerum memorabilium in epistolis et evan- geliis per anni circulum " (Antwerp, 1577). GiLLow. Bibl. Diet, of Engl. Catholics, I, 25-26; Ditt. of Nat. Biogr.. s. v. Thomas J. Shahan. AUouez, Claude, one of the most famous of the early Jesuit missionaries and explorers of what is now" the western part of the United States, b. in France in 1620; d. in 1689, near the St. John's River, in the present State of Indiana. Shea calls AUouez "the founder of Catholicity in the West". He was a predecessor and subsequently a co-labourer of Marquette, and there is a book still extant con- taining prayers in Illinois and French, in which an ancient note states that it was prepared by AUouez for the use of Marquette. AUouez laboured among the Indians for thirty-two years. He was seventy- six years old when he died, worn out with his heroic labours. He preached the Gospel to twenty differ- ent tribes, and is said to have baptized 10,000 neophytes with his own hand. He took charge of, and put on a firm basis, the famous Kaskaskian mission, which death had compelled Marquette to relinquish. None of the missionaries of his time dared more or travelled over a wider territory than AUouez. He even reached the western end of Lake Superior. His life was one alternation of triumplis and defeats. At times he had to prevent the Indians from adoring him as a god; at others, they were about to sacrifice him to their deities. It is noteworthy that much of his trouble came from the old Iroquois who had murdered Jogues, Br^ljeuf, and the other Jesuits in the East, and who were now drifting or being driven towards the West. There is an especial distinction to be accorded to AUouez in the fact that he was the first Vicar-General of the United States, the office hav- ing been assigned to him by Monseigneur La'al, Bishop of Quebec. His jurisdiction extended over the entire western country, including the French tradci-s as well as the native tribes. Jesuit Relations; Shea. Cath. Church in Colonial Days; American Biog.; Parkman, La Salle; De Backer, Biblio- Iheque de la c. de J. T. J. Campbell. Alma, a Hebrew word signifying a "young woman", unmarried as well as married, and thus distinct from belhulah, "a virgin" (see Hebrew Lexi- cons). The interest that attaches to this word is due to the famous passage of Isaias, vii, 14: "the Alma .shall conceive", etc. We can only mention some of the various opinions with regard to the mc^aning of Alma in this verse. Slie is said to be, (1) the wife of Achaz; (2) the prophetess mentioned in Is., viii, 3; (3) any young married woman, who on account of the promised victory of Judah, could at some near date call her child Immanuel (God with us); (4) metaphorically, the Chosen People; (5) the Virgin Mother of the Messiah. Tliis last view is the one adopted by St. Mattliew, i, 23, and after him by Christian tradition. (See Emmanuel; Mes- siah.) CoNDAMiN, and other Commentaries on Isaias. R. BUTIN. Alma Redemptoris Mater (Kindly Mother of the Redeemer), tiie opening words of one of the four Antiphons sung at Compline and Lauds, in honour of the Blessed Virgin, at various seasons of the year. This particular Antiphon is assigned to that part of the year occurring between the first Vespers of the first Sunday in Advent and Compline of the 2d of February (on which day it ceases, even if the Feast of the Purification should be transferred from that day). It consists of six hexameter verses in strict prosodial form, followed by versicle, response, and prayer, which vary for the season: until Christmas Eve (first Vespers of the Nativity), V. Angelus Domini etc., R. Et concepit etc., with the prayer Gratiam tuam etc.; thenceforward, V. Post partum etc., R. Dei Genitrix, etc., and the prayer Deus qui salutis (Fter7}ce etc. The hexameter verses are cred- ited to Hermannis Contractus, or Hermann "the Cripple" (d. 1054), an interesting biographical notice of whom may be found in Duffield, "Latin Hymn Writers ", 149-168. It has been trans- lated into English by Father Caswall (Mother of Christ, hear thou thy people's cry); by Cardi- nal Newman, in "Tracts for the Times", No. 75 (Kindly Mother of the Redeemer), and J. Wallace (Sweet Mother of Our Saviour blest). Caswall's translation is found in the official "Manual of Pray- ers" (Baltimore), 76. In the Marquess of Bute's "Breviary; Winter Part", 176 (Maiden! Mother of Him Who redeemed us, thou that abidest), the un- rhymed hexameter version is very literal. Tlie Antiphon must have been very popular in England botli before and after its treatment by Chaucer in his "Prioresses Tale", which is based wholly on a legend connected with its recitation by the "Litel Clergeon": "This litel childe his litel book lerninge, As he sat in the scole at his prymer, He Alma redemptoris herde singe. As children lerned hir antiphoner; And, as he dorste, he drough hym ner and ner, And herkned ay the wordes and the note, Till he the firste vers coude al by rote." Professor Skeat, in his "Oxford Chaucer ", thought that the Alma Redemptoris here was the sequence (cf. Mone, Lateinische Ilymnen, II, 200): Alma Redemptoris mater Quem de coelis misit Pater — but subsequently (cf. Modern Philology, April, 1906, "Chaucer's 'Litel Clergeon'", for an explanation of the error and a good treatment of many ques- tions related to the Antiphon) admitted that the Breviary Antiplion was referred to by Chaucer. For other hymn.s or semiences fotinded on the Antiphon, see Analecta Hymnica. XVII, 149 (De .S'. Maria Salome) and XLVI (Leipzig, 19051, 200, 201, No. 1-19 (Alma redemptoris Mater, omnium Salus etc.). II. T. Henry. AlmagTO, Diego de, the Elder, date and place of birth not satisfactorily established as yet, generally considered a foundling; came to Panama in 1514 with Pedro Arias de Avila (D'Avila), and soon dis- tinguished himself in military expeditions. When Pizarro, upon the return of Andagoya (1522) from his voyage along the western coast of Colombia, con- ceived the plan of penetrating farther Soutli, Almagro and Hernando de Luque came to liis assistance with funds, and a partnersiiip was formed (1.524), leading to a written document executed in 1.526, whicli docu- ment both Almagro and Pizarro certified by their marks, neither of them being able to write. Almagro
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