Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/401

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359 ALTAR ing pure wine is to buy it not at second hand, but directly from a manufacturer who understands and conscientiously respects the great responsibility in- volved in the celebration of the Holy Sacrifice. If the wine is changed into vinegar, or is become putrid or corrupted, if it w:i.s pressed from grapes that were not fully ripe, (•■• if it is mixed with such a quantity of water that it can lianlly be cuUetl wine, its use is forbidden (Missale Kom., De Dcfectibus, tit. iv, 1). If the wine begins to turn into vinegar, or to become putrid, or is the unfern>ented juice as pressed from the grape, it would be a grievous offence to it, but it is considered valid matter (ibid., 2). To con- serve weak and feeble wines, and in ortler to keep them from .souring or spoiling during transportation, a small quantity of spirits of wiiio (grape brandy or alcoliol) may be adiled, provided the following con- ditions are observed: (1) The aildcd spirit (alcohol) must have been distilled from the grape (ex gciiimme fUix); (2) the quantity of alcoluil added, together with that which the wine contained naturally after fermentation, must not exceed eighteen per cent of the whole; (3) the addition must be made during the process of fermentation (S. Romana et I'niv. Inquis., 5 .ugust, 1896). .Vlt.^r.vge. — Krora the low Latin altaragium, which signified the revenue reserved for the ch.aplain (altarist or altar-thane) in contradistinction to the income of the parish priest (Du Cange, Glossariuni). At present it signifies the fees received by a priest from the laity when discharging any function for them, e. g. at marriages, baptisms, funerals. It is also termed honorarium, stipend, stole-fee. BiNTERIM. DenkwurdU/krilcn (.Mainz. 182,5-33); Bona, Rerum liluraicirum tibri duo (Turin, 1747-53); Martknk, De <m(wuM tCcclesitt rilihus (enice, 17S3); TillKH.s. Lrt principauz autt-U dt's tytUea (Paris, 1CS8); Schmid, Dcr chrullu-he AlUr und m-in Schmuck (Katislion, 1871): S. L. T., The AUar and its Appurtenances, in Ameriean Eccle' tiasticat Rei-iew (July. .August. September, 19041; Uttini, Carso dl Scienzi lAlargica (BoloRna, 1904); Lero.skv. In- troduction it la lUurgie (Paris. 1S90); Bernahd. Cours de lilurQie romaine—lM Mnse (Paris, 1898), I; Nesbitt in Diet, of Chris. .Inliq. (Hartford. 1880); Probst in Kir- chenteT. (FreiburR im Breisgau); Pastoral Theologies of Amberoer, Besoer. Oa8.sner. Schuech; Sciiclte, Riles and Ceremonies (.New York. 1907); Van der Stappe.n, Sacra Liturgia (Mechlin. 1902), III. A. J. SCHI'LTE. Altar (in the Greek Church.) — I. The word altar (sometimes spelled oltar) is used in the Old Slavonic and Rus.sian languages to denote the entire space surrouniling what we know as the altar, which is included behind the iconostasis. and is the equivalent of the Greek word ^vfta. Thus it corresponds in a mea.sure to the sanctuary of the Roman churches. Hence the altar of the Russian Orthodox or the Ruthenian Greek Catholic churches means the sanc- tuary-, and not merely the altar known to Latin churches. The altar itself is called in Old Slavonic and Russian prestot, "the throne", in allusion to Our Ixjrcl Who reigns there as King. The altar of the Greek.s, using the Old Slavonic:i.s their liturgical language, includes not only the altar (prcKlnl) but also the Uttle side altar, or prolhc.iis, where the proskomiile (or preparation of the bread and wine for Mass) takes place, and also the scats for the clergy and the throne or cathedra for the bi.'ihop. In the Greek Church these .seats and the bishop's throne are usually placed behind the altar and on a step or elevation so that the occupants may si-e over the altar. II. The altar in the Greek Church {v di^ia rpdirtfa) has remained practically unchanged and madonicd. The Greeks, unlike the Latins, have placeil their wealth of decoration upon the iconostasis in front of the altar. In churches of the Latin Rile the altar itself been added to by rercdos and altar-pieros and the like; yet altars of the older form may still be seen in Rome, in St. Peter's, Santa Maria Mag- giore, St. John Lateran, St. Paul's, and other churches. Reside this the Western Rite has usually phiced the altar against the wall of the church; the Greek Rite keeps it apart and i.solated so that the olticiating clergy may pa-ss around it. The Roman altar, while rectangular, is usually longer in one direction than the other; but the Greek altar is ma<le square so that every measurement is ef| The top |X)rtion of a Greek altar should be of wood, one board at least. Herein it differs from the Roman Rite which rccjuires that even a wooden altar should have a stone slab or "sepulchre" wherein are en- clo.sed the relics of the saints. Upon the altar are the candles which are lighted during Mass, the cross, or more often the crucifix, which in Orthodox churches is usually inade only in low relief, anil also the book of the Gospels, containing the various Gospels arranged for reading in the Mass for the various Sunchiys and feast days during the Greek ecclesiastical year. The book of the Gospels is usually laid fiat on the altar until the time when the sacred elements are brought for con.secration; then it is stood up on edge in front of, and almost covering the tabernacle. Resides the Gospels, the mi.ssal, or tixoKiryiov, is also upon the altar, from which the priests read and intone the unchangeable Barts of the Mass. The tabernacle containing the lessetl Sacrament, reserved according to the Greek Rite, does not always rest upon the altar. Often these tabernacles, beautifully built, rest upon a pillar or other foundation about a foot or so behind the altar. The altar in the (ireck Church, as being the place on which the glory of the Lord rests, is vested with two coverings. The first is of white linen next to the altar it.self, and the second or outer covering is made of rich broca<le or embroidery and is calleil the endyton (ivStrrii'). Besides this there is the antimension which is usually placed on every altar and which contains the relics of some saint. A church and its altar should be consecrated by a bishop, but sometimes it is found impos.sible or inconvenient to accomplish this, and so a priest may perfonn the consecration; but he must the anlimcn.sion which has been duly consecrated by the bishop in almost the same manner as an altar is consecrated. The Greek consecration service, after the singing of hymns and psalms, and the consecration of the holy water u.setl in the service, begins by the bishop sprinkling the altar with holy water. He then pours into the nail holes of the altar-board a mixture of incense and wax, and the priests then nail down the top board to the stilid part of the altar. The then kneels and prays that the Holy Ghost may descend and sanctify the temple and altar. Then begins the ablution of the altar. While psalms are being sung the bishop lightly rubs the top board of the iUtar with soap in the form of a cross and pours water on it, and the priests take cloths and ruo the altar dr>'. Then the bishop takes retl wine mixed with a drop or so of rose-water and pours the mixture on the altar in the sliape of a cross and rubs it into the wood. With some drops of the same wine he sprinkles the attlimrnsion <lestincd for the new altar. Then the bishop anoints the top board and the sides of the altar with holy chrism and also anoints the antimcn.tinn. In the Greek Cathohc Church the altar is washed three times while the p.-i:ilms are being sung. Then begins the vesting of the altar. First a white linen covering is placed over the altar; and over this first cover a .second one of brilliant and embroidered material is placed, calletl the cnih/lon. There is then placed on the altar a fine large wrap or cloth called the hrileton (elXi/riK) which is somewhat analogous to the burse of the Latin Rite, and in it the nnlimen.iioii is enfolded. All these are put in place after having been blessed