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ALTAR 361 AlUre DruUchlandt (Frankfurt, 1885): Fledht, La Mrue (I'uris); Tiiierh, /,.« principaus a ute(» ( Paris, 1888); Corbllt, Uitlvirr de fEucharitlie (Paris, 1885). Mauuice M. Hassett. Altai, PonTAni.K; Puivileged. See Altar. Altar, SiHiri'iNi; dk the. See Holy Week. Altar of the Rood. Sec Holy Kood. Altar-Cover. See .ltar; .ltau-Piiotector. Altar -Herse. See Altar-Caxopv. Altar-Thane. See Altar. Alteserra, .Vntonjo. See Hai'teserre. Altmann, Ble.s.skd, (he frieiKl of Gregory VII and .Viisehn, conspicuous in the contest of tlic tiuelph.s and Cihibellincs, iis Bishop of l'!i.s.siiu and Papal Legate. He was born at Patlerborn about the beginning of the eleventh centurj', presided over the .scliool there, was chaplain at the court of Henry III, and then became Bishop of Passau. The Hollandists find that, because of these successive occupations, it is impossible to make liini out a lienedictine monk. As a bishop lie was famous for his care of the poor, his vigour in the reformation of relaxed mon".stcries, the building of new ones, and the splendour with which he invested divine worship— Henry IV liimself contributing lavishly to enrich the church of Passau, chiefly through the intervention of the Empresses .gnes and Bertha, his wife and mother— and finally for the opposition which he aroused in enforcing Grcgorj-'s decree of celibacy of the clergy. With the help of Henry the recalcitrants succeeded in driving him from his sec. He was recalled, however, sliortly after the death of Hermann the intruder, at death-bed lie is said to have appeared. Hermann l)egged for abso- lution,, and asked not to be buried as a bishop. Altmann's second possession of his see lasted only a short time. He was again expelled, and died in exile ten years after. He was one of the four South German bishops who sided with Gregory, and defied Henry, in refusing to take part in the Diet of Worms to depose the Pope. Acta SS.. II, August; Barisg-Godld, Lives o1 the Sainlt, 8 August (London, 1872). T. J. CAMPBELL. Alto, Saint, recluse and missionary in Bavaria, c. 7.30. Alto has been variously described as an - gIo-Saxon and an Irishman (Scolus), but the name Alt is undoubtedly Irish. We know little of his life except the broad facts that he hved for some time as a liermit, reclaiming the wild forest-land around him, and that he afterwards founded a Benedictine monastery in this spot, now called Altomiinster, in the of rreising. having previiiusly obtained a grant of land from King Pepin. >it. Boniface is said to have come to dedicate the church about the year 750. . charter still exists bearing the subscription Alto rcclauxus [Hauck. Kirclicngcschichte Deutschlands (1904), I, 541], which probably dates back to Alto's hermit days. We do not know the year of his death, but he is <'onimemorated on 9 February. The monastery of .Mtoniuiister suffered much from the Huns anil the depredations of the tyrannical nobles, but about the ^•car 1000 it was restored again as a Benedictine nionastcPi'. Later it was tenanted by Benedictine nuns and these at the enil of the fifteenth century gave place to a community of Brigittines, in whose hands it still remains despite many vicissitudes. The only sketch of .^Ito'."* life pre.'*er^'e<i to us is a docu- ment of the eleventh century, prinlod in the Acta SS., II, Feh., and in Man. (Jrrm. Scriut., XV. 8«; Maci.kar in Dirt. Chritl. Biog.. Sachs in Kirchenlez.; Hi.ndkr. (jrnrhirhle tier bayerischcn Briaiilm-KlostcT (Ilatisbon, 189tj). L'4U-345. Herbert Thursto.n. Alton, The Diocese of. includes that part of Illinois lying south of the northern limits of the coimties of Adams, Brown, Cass, Menard, Sangamon, Macon, Moultrie, Douglas, and Edgar, and north of the .southern limits of the counties of .Madi.son, Bond, Fayette, lCtiiiigli;im, Jasper, and Crawford. It was created 29 July, 1.S.53, by the division of the Diocese of Chicago, then embracing the whole state of Illinois. Tlie new see wa.s first located at Quincy, but was transferred. 9 January, 1857, to Alton. Its Cierman Catholic population came largely from Cincinnati and settletl at (Quincy, Teutopolis, and Germantown. Swiss Catholics founded Highland, and Alsatians .Sainle Marie. The building of railroads brought Irish Catholics in growing numbers. Caliokia, Kas- kaskia.and Prairie du Hoclier, which now Ix'long to the Diocese of Belleville, had been settled by French Catholics at an earlier jieriod. Prominent among the lay Catholics of the early period were Peter and Sebastian Wise of Alton, Mr. Slicplierd of Jer.sey- ville, .Mr. Pict|uet of Sainte Marie, Charles Koiitt and his nephew of Jacksonville. Fathers Ostrop, Hinsen, and Hickey were energetic missionaries. Bishops. — Henry Dainian Juncker (1857-68), b. 22 .ugust, 1809, at Fenestrange, in German Lor- raine; d. at Alton, 2 October, 18C8, attended the Pont-;-Mousson Seminary, but emigrated to Cin- cinnati, where he found an opiX)rtunity of continuing his studies in view of the priesthood to which he was raised. 16 March, 1836, by Bishop Purcell. He filled several charges in Ohio previous to his con- secration, at Cincinnati Cathearal, 26 April, 1857, by Archbishop Purcell. At .'Mton the bishop found before him 58 churches, five in course of erection; 30 stations visited by 28 priests; six young men studying for the ministry; two female academies, and a population of about 50,000. This population was made up of old French settlers, some Kentuckians. but especially of Irish immigrants driven away from their country by famine, and Germans, by political disturbances. In Illinois they were finding fertile prairies to till, and railroads to build. Thus they enhanced the prosperity of the State, hitherto only partly cultivated, and depending on the rivers and county roads for its means of communication. The non-Catholic population was not particularly hostile. Priests were very scarce, and vocations to the miiiistrj' very limited. In such an emergency the Bishop could only look up to Europe for help. In the fall of the same vear he crossed the ocean and secured followers in Vrance, Rome, Germanj', and Ireland. After his return, he enlarged his cathedral, erected the present Bishop's House, encouraged the build- ing of churches, schools, convents, and academics. He attended the Second Plenarj- Council and weM to Rome (1807) for the Centenarj- of the Holy Apos- tles. His suljsequent mi.ssionary labours brought on a severe sickness, which proved fatal. He was buried in a vault under his cathedral. He was suc- ccedcfl by one of his vicars-general, the Verj- Rev. Peter Joseph Baltes (1869-86), elected 24 Septem- ber, 1809, and consecrated 23 Januarj', 1870, in the present Belleville Cathedral (built by him), by Bishop I.uers, of Fort Wayne, while the Vatican Council was in session. He was born 7 April, 1820, in Ensheim, Rhenish Bavaria. .t the age of six years he emigrated with his parents to Oswego, . V. He attended school at Holj' Cross College, Worcester,; St. Marj-'s of the Lake, Chicago; and the Grand Seminarj' of .Montreal, where he le- ceived ordination, 21 May, 18.53. His missioncry charges were Waterloo and Belleville. At the time of the .Second Plenarj- Council of Baltimore (1866) he was made vicar-general, antl theologian to Bishop Juncker. Bishop Baltes soon made himself felt by the indomitable encrgj- with which he introduced order and uniformity in matters of liturgj- and dis- cipline. Under his administration was enacted the sixjcial law under which most of the church property