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ALUMNUS 370 ALUNNO straint not differing in kind from other natural im- pulses. At best, even granting his evolutionary premises, he has only presented us with the genesis of conscience. He has not reealed the nature or source of its peculiar imperative. The fact that I know how conscience was evolved from lower in- stincts may be a reason, but is not a motive for obeying it. Lastly, the solution of the difficulty arising from the conllict between egoism and altruism is deferred to a future ideal state in which egoism, thougli transfigured, will be supreme. For the pres- ent we mvist be content to compromise, as best we may, on a relative morality. Spencer's own judg- ment on liis system may be accepted. "The doc- trine of evolution", lie says "has not furnished guidance to the extent I had hoped . . . some such result might liave been foreseen." The Catholic teacliing on love of others is summed up in the precept of Christ: Love thy neighbour as thyself. The love due to oneself is the exemplar of the love due to others, though not the measure of it. Disinterested love of others, or the love of benevo- lence, the outward expression of which is beneficence, implies a union proximately based on likeness. All men are alike in this that they partake of the same rational nature made to the image and likeness of their Creator; liave by nature the same social apti- tudes, inrlinatioiis. and needs; and are destined for the same final union with God by which the likeness received through creation is perfected. By super- natural grace the natural likeness of man to man is exalted, changing fellowship into brotherhood. All likeness of whatever grade is founded ultimately in likeness with God. Love, therefore, whether of one- self or of others is in its last analysis love of God, by partaking of Whose perfections we become lovable. The conflict between self-love and benevolence, wliich is inevitable in all systems that determine the morality of an act by its relation to an agreeable psychological state, need not arise in systems that make the ethical norm of action objective; the ethi- cally desirable and the psychologically desirable are not identified. Catholic ethics does not deny that happiness of some kind is the necessary consequence of good conduct, or that the desire to attain or con- fer it is la-ful; but it does deny that the pursuit of it for its own sake is the ultimate aim of conduct. Apparent conflict, however, may arise between duties to self and to others, when only mediately known. But these arise from defective limitations of the range of one or other duty, or of both. They do not inhere in the duties themselves. The general rules for determining the prevailing duty given by Catholic moralists are these: (1) Absolutely speaking there is no obligation to love others more than self. (2) There is an obligation, which admits of no excep- tions, to love self more tlian others, whenever benefi- cence to others entails moral guilt. (3) In certain circumstances it may be obligatory, or at least a coun- sel of perfection, to love others more than self. Apart from eases in which one's profession or state of life, or justice imposes duties, these circumstances are determined by comparing the relative needs of self and others. (4) These needs may be spiritual or tem- poral; the need of the community or of the individ- ual; the need of one in extreme, serious or ordinary want; the need of those who are near to us by natural or social ties, and of those whose claims are only union in a common humanity. The first class in each group has precedence over the second. Catholic ethics reconciles self-love and benevolence by suliordinating both to the supreme purpose of creation and the providential ends of the Creator. It toadies that acts of self-love may have a moral quality; that sacrifice of self for the good of others may sometimes be a duty, and when not a duty, may oftentimes be an act of virtue. It distinguishes be- tween precept and counsel. The Fositivist can only give counsel, and in his effort by emphasis and ap- peal to sentiment to make it imperatie, he destroj-s all ethical proportion. Because the Catholic doctrine does not confound moral obligations with the perfec- tion of moral goodness it is often charged with laxity by those whose teaching undermines all moral obli- gation. CoMTE, Positive Polity, I, tr. Bridges (London, 1875-79); Spencer. Principles of Ethics (London, 1892-93); Stephen, Science of Ethics (London, 1882); Sidgwick, Methods of Ethics, IV, iii, and passim (5 ed., London, 1893); Mahtineau, I'ypes of Ethical Theories, I (3 ed.. Oxford, 1898); Caird, The Social Philosophy of Comte (Glasgow, 1885): Aquinas. Summa Theotogica, Ila-IIM QQ. 25 and 26 (Basle, 1485: Paris. 1861); RiCKABY, Aquinas Ethicus, loc. cit.; Costa-Rosetti. Philoso- phia Moralis, Thesis 99; MiNO, Data of Modern Ethics Ex- amined, 15 (New York, 1897); Maher. Psychology, 5 ed. (London, 1903). Timothy Brosnahan. Alumnus (from Lat. alo, "to nurse", or "feed") signifies in ecclesiastical usage, a student prepar- ing for the sacred ministry in a seminary. Origi- nally the word meant a child adopted with certain restricted privileges, or a foster-child. Since the Council of Trent, however, the word hao become equivalent to a seminarian, and as such is often applied to the students of the ecclesiastical colleges in Rome. The Council of Trent (sess. xxiii, ch. 18, de Ref.) required bishops to csta'olish institutions for the education of students for the priesthood. For- merly, church candidates liad been educated in the houses of priests, in monasteries, or in the public universities. According to the Council, such alumni, among other qualifications, should be at least twelve years of age and able to read and write, and their disposition should be such as to give hope that they would adorn perpetually the sacred ministry. Chil- dren of the poor were to be especially favoured. Besides philosophy, theology, scripture, and canor law, they were to study rites and ceremonies, sa- cred eloquence and plain chant. The bishop was to see that the students heard Mass daily, confessed monthly, and communicated as often as advisable. On festival days they were to take part in the cathe- dral services. The bishop was also exhorted to visit these students frequently, to watch o-er their prog- ress in learning and piety, and to remoe hindrances to their advancement. In 1896, the Congregation of Bishops and Regulars laid down rules for the guidance of bishops in regard to "alumni" who at- tend public universities, requiring especially that they do not associate too familiarly with the other students, and that they be gathered frequently for spiritual conferences and for philosophical, theologi- cal, and historical discussions. (See Seminary, Ec- clesiastical.) LuciDi, De Visit. Sac. Lim., I. Ill (Rome. 1889); Lad- RENTius. Inst. Jur. Eccl. (Freiburg, 1903). 471; Booix, De Episcopo, H (Paris, 1889). William H. W. Fanning. Aluiino, NiccoLo (real name Niccolo di Libcratore), a notable I'mbrian painter in distemper, b. c. 1430, at Foligno; d. 1.502. He was the son of a painter, and a pupil of Bartolommeo di Tomniaso. His master's assistant was Bennozo Gozzoli, the pupil of l<ra Angelico. The simple Umbrian feeling in his work w'as somewhat modified by this Florentine influence. His earliest known example (dated 1458) is in the Franciscan Church of La Diruta, near Perugia. He painted banners for religious proces- sions, as well as altarpieces and other iiictures, died a rich man, and is supposed by Mariotti to have been the master of Perugino, Pinturicchio, and Andrea di Luigi. Some works ascribed to him are thought to be by another, and contemporary, Ahmno, called Pesiderato. A "Madonna Enthroned" is in the Brera Gallery in Mifan, and there are alt.arpicces at Perugia, in the Castle at San Severino, at Gualdo