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AMBRONAY 383 AMBROSE army in Italy. To conciliate the King, Julius made d'Amboise " Legate a latere" for the whole of France, a most exceptional honour. Cardinal d'Amboise held his higli olhce in CImrch and State till his death, wliicli took place at the convent of the Celestiiis in Lyons, 25 May, 1510. lie has a splendid tomb hi the Cathedral of Ilouen. Lkoknuhk, Vie du cardinal d'Amboise (Rouen, 1720); MoNriMHD, Lr cardinal G. d'Amboise, ministre de Louia Xll (I.imow^. 1879); dAmuoise. LeUrea uu rui Louia Xll (Urus- sels, 1712). r. p. II.WEY. Ambronay, Our L.dy of, a sanctuary of the Blessed Virgin at -mbronay, France, regarded as one of the two cratlles of ilcvotion to Our Lady in the Diocese of Belley. The original church was fountled by recluses in the seventh century, antl having been destroyed by the Saracens, w;us rebuilt (c. 8U3) by St. Barnanl (77S-,S4l2), together with the famous monastery of the same name. About the middle of the tliirteenth century the church was reconstructcil on a grander scale, and still remains, in spite of the ravages of 1793, one of the most imposing monu- ments of the iliocese, remarkable for its wiiulows, sacristy, altar, and spiral The facade of one of the naves d.Ues from the ninth century. Acta SS., 23 Jan.; Lkroy, llistoire dca pHcrinagca de la Sainte Vierge en France (Paris, 1875), II, 185. F. M. RUDGE. Ambros, .•Vugust Wii.helm, historian of music and art critic, one of the greatest in modern times, b. at .M;iutli, near Prague, in IJohemia, 17 November, 181G; d. in Vienna, 2S June, 1870. Altliough destiiuil for the profession of law, in which he obtained tin- doctor's degree, and advanced to the point of bi- coming Councillor of State, he studied music seriou.-lN and under the best auspices. Ho was soon ap- pointed a member of the board of governors of the Royal Conservatory at Prague, and became active as a musical critic. At this period of liis career . ibros wrote several overtures for orchestra and a "Stal>at Mater". As a composer he reflected very stronply the influence of Robert .Schumann. Lacking llie vital spark of originality, his compositions have not survived him. lie became generally known as an art critic through his Ijook "Die (irenzen der .Musik und Poesie ", written in reply to Edward Hanslick'.s Iri'atise " Vom .Musikalisch-Schoncn ". The latter a.ssumod a materialistic basis for the art of music, defining musical forms as being nothing more than "sounding arabcsque.s ". Ambros 's work defines what can be expressed by means of music, and wh:it needs one of the other arts for its manifestation. In this remarkable book the author not only lays down those principles of Catholic philosophy in the light of which he judges the art works of the past and present, but he also displays that extensive knowledge of the architecture, the sculpture, the painting, and the literature of all schools and nations, their inter-relation and common origin which at once attracted the attention of the scientific world. With every new work of Ambros, such as "Kulturhis- torische Bilder aus dem Musiklelx;n der Ccgcn- wart ", " Bunte Blatter" and numerous magazine articles, his reputation increased, until the Breslau publisher Leuckart (now in Leipzig) induced him to write a complete history of music, . ibros em- braced witli alacrity this great opportunity for, sus he put it, "rendering a service to science and art." The result was the greatest historical work on the art of music in existence. Beginning with the music of antiquity in the first volume, the second is de- voted to the Middle Ages, the third to the Nethcr- land school, and the fourth deals with Palcstrina and the transition to the moderns. This historj', revealing the great artistic past of the Church, ap- peared at the time of the revival brought about by the publication of Proske's "Musica Divina ", and gave tremendous impetus to the movement. Pioske made the treasures of polyphonic art accessible, and Ambros told of their origin. Aside from the perma- nent historical value of his life work, Ambros haa rendered the Catholic cause untold service by vindi- cating the past, and by proclaiming with a powerful pen and with vast erudition sound philosop'iic prin- ciples in the midst of a well-nigli all-pervading pantheism. Ambros died before completing the fourth volume of his history. Otto Kade published, in 1882, a fifth volume consisting of musical illu.s- trations collected from the historian's literary re- mains, and W. Langhans has brought the history up to date, without, however, showing Anibros's acumen or soundness. It should be mentioned that Ambros, while holding his ofiicial positions in Prague and, after 1872, in Vienna, as an officer of the De- partment of Justice, professor at the Conservatory, and private tutor to Prince Rudolf, was given leave of absence six months in the year, and pro- vided with the means to enable him to visit the principal libraries of Europe in search of material for his great work. RiEMAN.N, Muaiklexikon; Koknmcller, Lerikon der kirch- lichen Tonkunat. Joseph Otten. Ambrose, Saint, Bishop of Milan from 374 to 397; 1). probably .3-10, .at Trier, Aries, or 1 yons; d. 4 .•pril, 397. He was one of the most illustrious Fathci-s and Doctors of the Church, and fitly chosen. together with St. Augustine, St. John Chrysostom, and St. .thanasius, to upliold the veiierable'Chair of the Prince of the Apostles in the tribune of St. Peter's at Home. The materials for a biography of the Saint are chiefly to lie found scattered through his w ritings, since the "Life" written after his death by his secretary, Paulinus, at the suggestion of St. Au- gustine, is extremely disapi>oiiiting. Ambrose was descended from an ancient Poman family, whicli, at an early [leriod, had enibracc<l Christianity, and numbered among its scions both Christian martyrs and high officials of State. M the time of his birth his father, likewise named .mbrosius. w;us Prefect of Gallia, and as such niled the present territories of France, Britain, and Spain, together with Tingitaiia