AMBROSE 388 AMBROSIAN Dei, sive Mosaicanim et Romanarum Legum Col- latio", an attempt to exhibit the law of Moses as the historical source wlience Roman criminal jurispru- dence drew its principal dispositions. Edilions of lux Writings. — The hterary history of the editions of liis writings is a long one and may be seen in the best lives of Ambrose. Erasmus edited them in four tomes at Basle (1527). A valuable Roman edition was brought out in 1580, in five vol- umes, the result of many j'ears' labour; it was begun by Sixtus V, while yet the monk Felice Peretti. Pre- fixed to it is the life of St. Ambrose composed by Baronius for liis Ecclesiastical Annals. The excel- lent Benedictine edition appeared at Paris (1686- 90) in two folio volumes; it was twice reprinted at Venice (1748-51, and 1781-82)._ The latest edition of the writings of St. Ambrose is that of P. A. Bal- lerini (Milan, 1878) in six folio volumes; it has not rendered superfluous the Benedictine edition of du Frische and Le Nourry. Some writings of Ambrose have appeared in the Vienna series known as the "Corpus Scriptorum Classicorum Latinorum" (Vi- enna, 1897 — 1907). There is an English version of selected works of St. Ambrose by H. de Romestin in the tenth volume of the second series of the "Se- lect Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers" (New York, 1896). A German version of selected writings in two volumes, executed by Fr. X. Schulte, is foimd in the " Bibliothek der Kirchenvater" (Kempten, 1871-77). For exhaustive bibliographies see Chevalier, Repertoire, etc., Bw-BMiographie (2d eil., Paris, 1905), 186-89; Bar- DENHEWER. Palrologic (2d ed., Freiburg, 1901). 387-89. Dk Broglie, Lea Saints: St, Ambroise (Paris, 1899); Davies in Diet, of Christ. Biogr., a, v., I, 91-99; Butler, Lives of the Saints, 7 Dec; Forster, Ambrosius, Bischof von Mailand (Halle, 1884); Ihm, Sliuiia Arnbrosiana (Leipzig, 1890); Ferrari, Introduction to Arnbrosiana, a collection of learnecl studies published (Milan 1899) on occasion of the fifteenth centenary of his death. The introduction mentioned is by Cardinal Ferrari, Archbishop of Milan. James F. Loughlin. Ambrose of Camaldoli, S.int, an Italian theo- logian and writer, b. at Portico, near Florence, 16 September, 13S6; d. 21 October, 1439. His name was .mbrose Traversari. He entered the Order of the Camaldoli when fourteen and became its General in 1431. He was a great theologian and writer, and knew Greek as well as he did Latin. Tlie.se gifts and his familiarity with the affairs of the Cliurch led Eugenius IV to send him to the Council of Basle, where .mbrose strongly defended the primacy of the Roman pontiff and adjured the council not to rend asunder Christ's seamless robe. He was next sent by the Pope to the Emperor Sigismond to ask his aid for the pontiff in his efforts to end this council, which for five years had been trenching on the papal prerogatives. The Pope transferred the council from Basle to Ferrara, 18 September, 1437. In this council, and later, in that of Florence, Ambrose by his efforts, and charity toward some poor Greek bishops, greatly helped to bring about a union of the two Cliurclies, the decree for which, 6 July, 1439, he was called on to draw up. He died soon after. His works are a treatise on the Holy Eucharist, one on the Procession of the Holy Ghost, many lives of saints, a history of his generalship of the Camal- dolites. He also translated from Greek into Latin a Life of Chrysostoin (Venice, 1.533); the Spiritual Wisdom of John Moschus; the Ladder of Paradise ofSt^ John Climacus (Venice, 1.531), P. G., LXXXVIII. lie al.so tran.slated four books against the errors of the Greeks, by Manuel Kalckas, Patriarch of Constantinople, a Dominican monk (Ingnlstadt, 1608), P. G., CAl, col. 13-061, a work known only through Ambrose's tran.slation. He also translated many liomilies of St. John Chrysostom; the treatise of the p.seudo-Dcnis the Areopagite on the celestial hierarchy; St. Ba.sil's treatise on virginity; thirty- nine discourses of St. Eplirem the Syrian, and many other works of the Fatliers and writers of the Greek Church. Dom Mabillon's " Letters and Orations of S. Ambrose of Camaldoli" was pubhshed at Florence, 1759. St. Ambrose is honoured by the Church on 20 November. Hefele. Hist, of Councils (Edinburgh, 1871-96), XI, 313 sqq., 420, 463; Man.si, Colt. sacr. conril. (Venice, 1788. 1792, 1798), XXIX, XXX, XXXI; Ehrhari, in Krumbacher. Geschiehte der byzantinischen Ltterixtur, 2d ed. (Munich, 1897). 111-144. John J. .k' Becket. Ambrose of Sienna, Blessed, b. at Sienna, 10 April, 1220, of the noble family of Sansedoni; d. at Sienna, in 1286. When about one year old, Ambrose was cured of a congenital deformity, in the Dominican church of St. Mary Magdalene. As a child and youth lie was noted for his love of charity, exercised especially towards pilgrims, the sick in hospitals, and prisoners. He entered the novitiate of the Dominican convent in his native city at the age of seventeen, was sent to Paris to continue his philo- sophical and theological studies under Albert the Great, and had for a fellow-student there St. Thomas Aquinas. In 1248 he was sent with St. Thomas to Cologne where he taught in the Dominican schools. In 1260 he was one of the band of missionaries who evangelized Hungary. In 1266 Sienna was put un- der an interdict for having espoused the cause of the Emperor Frederick II, then at enmity with the Holy See. The Sicnnese petitioned Ambrose to plead their cause before the Sovereign Pontiff, and so suc- cessfully did he do this that lie obtained for his na- tive city full pardon and a renewal of all her privi- leges. The Siennese soon cast off their allegiance; a second time Ambrose obtained partion for them. He brought about a reconciliation between Emperor Conrad of Germany and Pope Clement IV. About this time he was cliosen bishop of his native city, but he declined the office. For a time, he devoted himself to preaching the Crusade; and later, at the request of Pope Gregory X, caused the studies which the late wars had practically suspended to be re- sumed in the Dominican convent at Rome. After the death of Pope Gregory X he retired to one of the convents of liis onler, wlicnce he was summoned by Innocent V and sent as papal legate to Tuscany. He restored peace between Venice and Genoa and also between Florence and Pisa. His name was in- serted in the Roman Martyrology in 1577. His bi- ographers exhibit his life as one of perfect humility. He loved poverty, and many legends are told of vic- tories over carnal temptations. He was renowned as an apostolic preacher. His oratory, simple ratlicr than elegant, was most convincing and effective. His sermons, although once collected, are not now extant. Acta SS., March, III, 180-251; Croissant, Stmopsis vita et miraculorum B. Ambrosii Srainsis (Brussels, 1623); Qvetip ET EcHARD, S«. Ord. Freed. (Paris, 1719); Ravnaldus, .-in- nales (1648), ad ann. 1286; Touron, Hiatoire dee hommes illustrcs de I'ordre de S. Dominique (Paris, 1743). E. G. Fitzgerald. Ambrosian Basilica. — This basilica was erected at Milan by its great fourth-century liishop, St. Am- brose, and was consecrated in the year 386. The basilica in its present form was constructed at four different periods, tlirce of which fall within the ninth, the fourtli in the twelftli, century. Yet, although the original church luas disappeared, a fairly good idea of its appearance in the time of its founder may be obtained from references in the writings of St. .mbrose, supplemented by modern researches. The original edifice, like the great cliurches of Rome of the same epoch, belonged to the bjusilica type; it consisted of a central nave lighted from the clere- story, two side aisles, an apse, and an atrium. In- vestigations made in 1804 liave established the fact
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