Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/444

This page needs to be proofread.

AMBROSIAN 400 AMBROSIAN three Nocturns; Lessons, with Respon.ioria and Bene- dictions — usually three Lessons, Sundays, homilies; weekdays from the Bible; saints' days, Bible and life of saint. On Christmas Day and Epiphany nine lessons; on Good Friday, six; on Easter Ee, none. On Sundays and festivals, except in Lent and Ad- vent, Te Deum follows. — L.^uds : Introduction as at Matins; canticle, Benedictus, Attende caelum or Clamavi; Krjrie, tlirice; Antiphona ad Crucem, re- peated five or seven times, not said on Perm; Oratio secreta i; canticle, Canlemus Domino (Ex. xv); Kyrie, thrice; Oralio secreta ii; canticle, Benedicite, Confite- mini Domino (Ps. cxvii), or Miserere (Ps. 1); Kyrie, thrice; Oratio i; psalms, Laudate (Pss. cxlviii-cl, cxvi); CapUulum; Kyrie, thrice. Psalmus Directus; hymn (on weekdays in Lent, Graduale); Kyrie, twelve times. On Sundays and festivals, Psallerida and Compkto- rium; on Ferite, Respnnsorium in Baplisterio; Kyrie, thrice; Oratio ii. On Sundays and Solemnitates Dom- ini, Psallenda ii and Completorium ii; on weekdays Psalmi iv, versus and Completorium; Kyrie, thrice; Oratio Hi; commemorations, if any; concluding ver- sicles and responses. — The Lesser Hours (Prime, Terce, Sext, None): Introduction as at Matins. Hymn; psalms; Epislolella; Responsorium Breve (at Prime, Quicunque vult); Capitulum; Preces (when said); at Prime, three Orationes, at other Hours, one; Kyrie, thrice; Benedicamus Domino, etc. (at Prime in choir the Marlyrology, followed by Exidlabunl Sancli etc., and a prayer); Fidelium animce etc. Vespers: Introduction as at Matins. On Sundays and Ferim: Lucernarium; (on Sundays, Antiphona in choro); hymn; Responsorium in choro; five psalms; Kyrie, thrice; Oratio i; Magnificat; Oratio ii; on Sun- days, Psallenda i, and two Completoria; on Ferioe, Responsorium in Baplisterio; Kyrie, thrice; Oratio Hi; on Sundays, Psallenda ii, and two Completoria; on Ferim, Psalmi iv versus: Kyrie, thrice; Oratio iv; com- memorations, if any. On saints' days; Lucernarium; at second vespers Antiphona in choro; hymn; Respon- sorium in choro or cuin injanlibus; psalm; Kyrie, thrice; Oratio i; Psalm; Oratio ii; Magnificat; Kyrie, thrice; Oratio Hi; Psallenda and two Completoria; Kyrie, thrice; Oratio iv; commemorations. Conclud- ing versicles and responses. — Compline: Introduc- tion, with addition of Converte nos, etc.; hymn (Te lucis); Psalms iv, xxx, 1-7, xc, cxxxii, cxxxiii, cxvi; Epislolella; Responsorium; hhinc Dimitlis; Ca- pitulum; Kyrie, thrice; Preces (when said); Oratio i, Oratio ii; concluding versicles and responses; An- tiphon of Our Lady; Confitcor. There are antiphons to all psalms, except those of Compline, and to all canticles. During Lent, except on Saturdays and Sundays, there are two lessons (from Genesis and Proverbs) after Terce; and on Wednesdays and Fri- days of Lent and on Ferioe de Exceptato litanies are said then. VI. The Mass. — The Ambrosian Mass in its pres- ent form is best shown by an analysis pointing out the differences from the Roman. As a great part of it agrees word for word with the Roman, it will only be necessary to indicate the agreements, without giv- ing the passages in full. There are a certain number of ceremonial differences, the most noticeable of which are: (1) When the deacon and sub-deacon are not occupied, they take up positions at the north and south ends of the altar facing each other. (2) The Prophecy, Epistle, and Gospel are said, in Milan Cathedral, from the great ambon on the north side of the choir, and the procession thereto is ac- companied with .some .state. (3) The offering of bread and wine by the men and women of the Scuola di S. Ambrogio. (4) The filing past and kissing the north corner of the altar at the OITertory. (5) The silent Lavaho just before the Consecration. (6) The alMcnce of bell-ringing at the IClevation. In tlie rubrics of the Missal there are certain survivals of ancient usage which could only have applied to the city of Milan itself, and may be compared with the "stations" aflixed to certain Masses in the Roman Missal of to-day. The Ambrosian Rite supposes the existence of two cathedrals, the Basilica Major or Ecclesia ^Estiva, and the Basilica Minor or Ecclesia Hiemalis. Lejay, following Giulini, calls the Ecclesia Major (St. Mary's) the winter church, and St. Thecla the summer church (Cabrol, Dictionnaire d'arch- 6ologie chrdtienne, col. 13S2 sqq.), but Ecclesia Hiemalis and Ecclesia Major in the "Bergamo Mis- sal", and Ecclesia Hie7nalis and Ad Sanctam Mariam, in all missals, are evidently contrasted with one another. Also the will of Berengarius I, founding St. Rafaele ((juoted by Giulini, I, 416) speaks of the latter being near the summer church, which it is, if the summer church is St. Mary's. There is also assumed to be a detached baptistery and a Chapel of the Cross, though mentions of these are found chiefly in the Breviary, and in earlier times the church of St. Laurence was the starting point of the Palm Sunday ceremonies. The greater, or summer, church, under the patronage of Our Lady, is now the Cathedral; the lesser, or winter, cliurch, which stood at the opposite end of the Piazza del Duomo, and was destroyed in 1543, was under the patronage of St. Thecla. As late as the time of Beroldus (twelfth century) the changes from one to the other were made at Easter and at the Dedication of the Great Church (third Sunday in October), and even now the rubric continues to order two Masses on certain great days, one in each church, and on Easter Eve and through Easter week one Mass is ordered daily pro haplizatis in Ecclesia Hiemali, and another, according to the Bergamo book, in Ecclesia Majori. The modern books say, in omni ecclesid. There were two baptisteries, both near the greater church. Analysis of the Ambrosian Mass. The Confiteor. V. In nomine Patris, etc. R. Amen. V. Introibo ad Altare Dei. R. Ad Deum qui etc. V. Confiteraini Domino quoniam bonus. R. Quoniam in sieculum misericordia ejus. Con- fiteor, etc., Misereatur, etc.. Indulgent iam etc., as in the Roman Rite, differing only in adding the name of St. Ambrose to the Confiteor. V. Adjutorium nostrum etc. R. Qui fecit etc. V. Sit nomen Domini benedictum. R. Ex hoc nunc et usque in seculum. (Secreto) Rogo te, altissime Deus Sabaoth, Pater sancte, ut pro peccatis meis possim intercedcre et astantibus veniam peccatorum promereri ac pacificas singulorum hostias immolare. Oramus te, Domine etc., as in the Roman Rite. The "Ingressa", which answers to the Roman In- troit. Except in the Mass for the Departed, when, even in the 1475 Missal, it is exactly the Roman Introit, it consists of a single passage, generally of Scripture, without Psalm, "Gloria Patri", or repe- tition. V. Dominus vobiscura etc. Gloria in Excelsis. — On the Sundays in Lent two litanies are said alternately instead. These litanies strongly resemble the Great Sjmapte of the Greek Rite and, like that, are said by the deacon. One has the response "Domine Miserere", and the other "Kyrie eleison". A very similar litany in the Stowe Missal (f IG, b) is called "Deprecatio Sancti Martini pro populo". Kyrie eleison (thrice). V. Dominus vobiscum etc. Oratio super Populum, "vel plures Orationes". The Collect or Collects for the day. V. Dominus vobiscum etc. The Prophetical Lesson, when there is one, which is generally on Sundays, "Solemnitates Domini" and