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AMOVIBILITY 4.37 of being a reason for them to indulge with security in sins hateful to God's holiness, really increase their guilt and must make them fear a severer penalty. He does not deny tliat sacrifices should be offered to the Divine Majesty; but lie most emphatically declares that the mere outward offering of tliem is not pleasing to God and cannot jjlacate His anger. On the day of the Lord, that is on the day of retribu- tion, Israelites who shall be found guiltj' of the same crimes as the heathen nations will be held to ac- covmt for them severely. It is true that Amos argues in a concrete manner with his contemporaries, and that consequently he does not fonnulate abstract principles. Nevertheless, his book is replete with trutlis which can never become superfluous or ob- solete. Finally, whatever view may lie taken of the au- thorship of the concluding jwrtion of the book of Amos (i., 8c.-15), the Messianic bearing of the passage will be readily admitted by all who believe m the existence of the supernatural. It may also be added that this Messianic prophecy is worded in a maimer that offers no insuperable objection to the traditional view which regards Amos as its author. For reference to Introductions to the Old Testament, gee Bibliography to Aqgeus; receut Commentaries on Amos by Trochon (1886); K.nadknbaukr (188G); Ohelli (Eng. tr., 18931; Pillion (1890); Driver (1898); Smith (1890); Mit- chell (2d ed., I9(X)); Nowack (2d ed., 1903); Marti (1903); HOBTON (1904). F. E. GlOOT. Amovibility, a term applied to the condition of certain ecclesiastics in regard to their benefices or offices. While it is true that holders of so-called perpetual or irremovable dignities can in certain specified cases be deprived of their offices, yet the term "amovibility" is generally restricted to such as are removable at the will of the bishop. Such are most of the rectors of churches in the United States and England, as also in general and every- wlicre those who have charge of succursal churches or are parish assistants. Under the head of remov- able dignitaries, canonists generally class also vicars- general, archde;icons, and rural deans. Such an office or benefice is designated mainiaU', as opposed to tilnlare or j>ernetuwn. The interpretation of amovibility has cau.sed considerable controversy. Many canonists have argued that because the possessor of an office hoULs it ad nulum, he can therefore l)e deprived of it witliout cause. Otherwise, they declare, the word amovibility would have no meaning. They note as exceptions, however, to this power of the bishop, cases in wiiich he acts from open hatred, or injures the good name of the ecclesiastic, or damages tlie parish. Likewise, they say, if the person remoed were not given another office, lie could have recourse to a supe- rior authority, as this would be eciuivalent to injurmg his good name. These canonists also add that the bishop would sin if he removed an ecclesiastic with- out cause, as his action would be without a proper motive, and because frequent changes are neces- sarily detrimental to churches. Other canonists seem to maintain for removable rectors (see Rector; Pahish Priest) practically the same rights as to perpetuity, which are possessed by irremovable ec- <lesi;istics. Perhaps, however, the difference Ix^tween these opinions is little more than verbal. Amovi- bility must not be confounded with arbitrary re- moval, which the Church has always condemned. It is opposed rather to the perpetual tenure of those benefices, for removal from which the canons require a cause expressly named in law and a formal canon- ical process or trial. But there may Ix; other very grave caascs that justify a removal besides those named in the canons. Nor does it follow that, l)e- cause a regular canonical process is not to m ob- served, all formalities are to be neglected in the removal of rectors who hold their office ad nutum episcopi; there are also extra-judicial forms which are practically equivalent to a canonical process. A removable rector is, therefore, one who may jc removed without cause expressed in law, but not without a just cause; one who may be removed without canonical process, but not without certain presented formalities, which are really judicial, though "extra-judicial" as regards the canons. Since, however, removable ecclesiastics have no strict and perpetual right to their offices, any re- vocation made by the superior ad nulum is valid, though it might Ijc gravely illicit and reversible. In such cases recourse may be had to a superior authority, although an ordinary appeal in the strict sense is barred. In the United States the method of procedure is laid down principally in tlie Second Plenary Council of Baltimore (1800) and the Uoman Instructions "QuamvLs" of 1878 and "Cum Magno- pere" of 1.S.S4. Wehnm, Jus. Deer.. II (Rome, 1899); SsiiTii, Ulcm. «/ Eccl. Law, I (New York. 1895); The New Procedure (New York. 1897); Craibhon. .fan. Jur. Can., I (Paris, 1889); BoDLX, De Farocho (Pari'*. 1880). WiLLiAii Windsor Amoy, The Vicariate Apostolic of, in China, created in 1S83, and entrusted to the care of the Dominicans. It includes the island of Formosa, with neighbouring small islands. The native population is about 4,.500,OfX), of which 2,000,000 are in Formosa. The Catholics number 3,930 (in Formosa 1,014). There are 11 European and 8 Chinese priests, 32 churches or chapels, 3 orphanages, and 13 schools with 242 pupils. Hattandieh, -Inn. pont. cath. (Paris. 1905), 344. Ampere, Axdke-Marie, physicist and mathema- tician, b. 22 January, 1775, at Lyons, I'Vance; d. at Marseilles, 10 June, 1836. His father was a prosper- ous and educated merchant, his mother charitable and pious, while he himself combined the traits of both. The mathematical tent of his mind showed itself very early. Before he knew his letters and numbers he is said to have [x-rformed complex arith- metical computations by means of pebbles and beans. His childhood days were spent in the village of Poleymieux-le.s-Mont-dX)r, near Lyons. His father began to teach him Latin, but, on discovering the boy's thirst for mathematical knowledge, he provided him with the necessary books. It was not long be- fore he had mastered the elements of his chosen study, so that his father was obliged to take the boy of eleven to the library at Lyons, where he asked for the works of Bernouilli and Euler. On being in- formed that these books were written in Latin, and that he would need a knowledge of the calculus, he resumed the study of the one and applied himself to that of the other, and at the end of a few weeks was able to take up the serious perusal of difficult treatises on applied mathematics. During the revolution his father returned to Lyons, in 1793, expecting to te safer in the city. After the siege, however, he fell a victim and was executeil. This death was a great shock to the delicate, sensitive boy, who for more than a year was in a state bordering on idiocy. From this he was suddenly aroused by the reading of two works: J. J. Rousseau s " Letters on Botany "and Horace's "Ode to Licinius", which led him to the im- mediate study of plants and of the classic poets. In 1799 he married Julie Carron, who lived only five years longer, leaving a son who afterwards tecame a writer of great literary merit. Am|x"Te was obliged to teach in order to supiwrt liiniself and family. M first he gave private lessons in Lyons; later, in 1801, he left his wife and child to take the chair of physics at the I'cole Centrale in Bourg. There he wrote the article that attracted the attention of Lalandc and Delambre: " Considerations sur la th<?orie math(?ma- tiquo du jeu ". In this he attacks and solves the