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447

AMACLETUS 447 ANAESTHESIA a certain number of priests is nearly all we have of positive record about liiiu, but we know he died a martyr, perhaps about 91. AcUt SS., July, III; lIUHOF.NBaTHKR, Iliat. de Kglitie. I; JuNGMANN, IHaseTt. lliitt. KccL, 1; Dk Smkdt, Duiaert., I; DucMKsNE, Originta chrtlicnnta; BuTLKii, Lives of the Satnta, 13 July. T. J. Campbell. Anacletus, II, the title whioli was taken by Car- dinal I'iptro I'ierleonc at the CDnlcsUnl papal election of the year 11:50. Tlio date of his iiirtli is uncertain; (I. J.') January, 1 l^i'^. Though llic I'ierlconi were con- ceded to be one ot the wealtliiest and most powerful senatorial families of Rome, and though tiiey had stanchly supported the Popes throughout the fifty years' war tor reform and freedom, yet it was never forgotten that they were of Jewish extraction, and had risen to vealtli and power by usury. The Cardinal's grandfather, named Leo after Pope Leo IX, who baptized him, was a faitliful adlierent of Gregory VII; Leo's son, Peter, from whom the family acquired the appellation of Pierleoni, became leader of the faction of the Uoman nobility which was at enmity witli the Frangipani. His marble cotiin may still be seen in tlic cloisters of St. Paul's, witli its pompous inscription extolling liis wealth and numerous offspring, llis attempt to install his son as Prefect of Rome in II 10, though favoured by the Po[)e, had been resisted by the ojiposite party with riot and bloodshed. His second son, the future Anti- pope, was destined for the Church. After finishing nis education at Paris, he became a monk in the monjistery of Cluny, but before long lie was sum- moned to Rome by Pope Paschal II and created Cardinal-Deacon of SS. Cosmas and Damian. He accompanied Pope Gelasius on his flight to France, and was employed by successive pontiffs in important affairs, including legations to France and England. If we can believe his enemies, he disgraced his high office by gross immorality and by his greed in the accumulation of lucre. Whatever exaggeration tlicre may be as to other charges, there can be no doubt that he wsus determined to buy or force his way into the Papal Chair. When Honorius lay on his death- bed, Pierleone could count upon the votes of thirty cardinals, backed by the support of the mercenary populace and of every noble family in Rome, except the Corsi and the Frangipani. The pars sanioi- of the Sacred College numbered only sixteen, headed by the energetic Chancellor, Haymaric, and the Cardi- nal-Hisliop of Ostia. These sqiiadronisH, as they would have been called in later days, resolved to rescue the papacy from unworthy hands by a coup d'dat. Though in a hopeless minority, they had the advantage that four of their number were cardinal- bishops, to whom the legislation of Nicholas II had cntnisted the leading part in the election. More- over, of the commission of eight cardinals, to which, in apprehension of a schism, it was decided to leave the election, one of them being Pierleone, five were opposed to the ambitioiLs aspirant. To secure liberty of action, they removed the sick Pontiff from the Lateran to St. Clregory's, near the towers of the Frangipani. Honorius dying on the night of 13 Feb- niary, they buried him hurriedly the next morning, and compelled the reluctant Cardinal of San Ciior^io, Gregory Papareschi, under threat of excommunica- tion, to accept the pontifical mantle. He took the name of Innocent II. Later in the day the party of Pierleone a.ssembled in the Church of St. ilark and proclaimed liim Pope, with the name of .Anacle- tus II. Both claimants were consecrated on the same day, '2'. Febniarj', Anacletus in St. Peter's and Innocent in Sta. Maria Nuova. How fliis schism would have been healed, had the decision been left to the canonists, is hard to say. Anacletus had a strong title in law and fact. The majority of the cardinals with the Bishop of Porto, the Dean of the Sacred College, at their nead, stood at his side. Al- most the whole pooulace of Rome rallied around him. His victory seeniecl complete, when, .shortly after, the Frangipani, abandoning what apjieared to be a lost cause, went over to him. Innocent souglit safety in flight. No sooner had ho arrived in France than his alTairs took a favourable turn. "Expelled from the City, he was welcomed by the world", says St. Bernard, whose inlhience and exertions .secured for him the adhesion of practically the entire Christian world. The .Saint states his reasons for deciding in favour of Innocent in a letter to the Bisliops of Aquitaiiie (Op. cxxvi). They may not be canonically cogent; but they satisfied his contemporaries. "The life and character of our Pope Innocent are above any attack, even of his rival; while the other's are not safe even from his friends. In the second place, if you compare the elections, that of our candidate at once has the advantage over the other as being purer in motive, more regular in form, and earlier in time. The last point is out of all doubt; the other two are proved by the merit and the dignity of the electors. You will find, if I mistake not, that this election was made by the more discreet part of those to whom the election of the Supreme Pontiff' belongs. There were cardinals, bishoiw, priests, and deacons, in sufficient number, according to the decrees of the Fathers, to make a valid election. The consecration was performed by the Bishop of Ostia, to whoni that function specially belongs. Meanwhile Anacletus maintained his popularity in Rome by the lavish expenditure of his accumulated wealth and the plundered treasures of the clmrehcs. His letters and those of the Romans to Lothair of Germany remain- ing unanswered, he secured a ^■aluable confederate in Duke Roger of Apulia, who.se ambition he .satislicd by the gift of royalty; on Christmas Day, 1130, a cardinal-legate of Anacletus anointed at Palermo the first King of the Two Sicilies, a momentous event in the history of Italy. In the spring of 113.3, the German King conducted Innocent, whom two great synods, Reims and Piacenza, had proclaimed the legitimate Pope, to Rome; but as he came accom- panied by only 2,(J00 horse, the Antipope,.safe witliin the walls of Castle St. Angclo, looked on undismayed. Unable to open the way to St. Peter's, Lotliairand his queen Richenza, on 4 June, received the im|ierial crown in the Lateran. Upon the Em])eror's depart- ure Innocent was compelled to retire to Pisa, and for four years his rival remained in undisturbed po.sscssion of the Eternal City. In 11.37 Lothair, having finally vanquished the insurgent Holiciistau- fens, returned to Italy at the head of a forniidable army; but since the main purpose of the expedition was to punish Roger, the conquest of Rome was entrusted to the nii.ssionary labours of St. Bernard. The Saint's eloquence was more effective than the imperial weaiions. When Anacletus died, the prefer- ence of the Romans for Innocent was so pronounced that the Antipope, Victor IV, whom the party chose as his successor, soon came as a penitent to St. Bernard and by him was led to the feet of the Pope. ThiLS ended, after eight years of duration, a schism which threatened serious disaster to the Church. Liber f'lmtif. cl. DuriiF..sxK II, 379-383, also prxf. xxxi. xxxvi: H.uio.sus, Ann. Keel., nd ann. 1130-38. pnaaim; Gregorovhs. Oeach. drr SUtdl linm. (StuttEnrt. 1800). IV. 393 «|(i.j ViiN- Iti-.lTMONT, Gcachichle d. Shiill Rom., (Herlin. 18117). 11, 40S-411;; Hefki-k, Concilimatachiclitc, LM eil.. V. 400 sqq., 438, 439; Vaca.ndaiid, St. Bernard et le Hchiame d'Anaclet II m France, in Rev. dei queet. Aia(., Jan., 1888, ami his Vie de St. Bernard (Paris, 18971. I. 280 sqq. Jajies F. Loughlin. Anaesthesia (from Greek d, privative, and alaSitirtt, feeling), a term in medicine, and the allied sciences, signifying a state of insensibility to external im- pressions, consequent upon disease, or induced arti-