Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/508

This page needs to be proofread.
452

ANARCHY 452 ANARCHY invariable. The Greek Anaphora is substantially of apostolic origin, though in its present form it dates from the end of the fourth or the beginning of the fifth century when St. Basil the Great and St. John Chrysostom (respectively) shortened the liturgy that until tlien was 'ery long and fatiguing. The terra is of much importance, given its antiquity, for the demonstration of the sacrificial character of the Holy Mass (see Cabrol, 1911-13; Probst, 240, 325).— 2. In the Eastern or Greek Church the Offertory is a more deliberate and impressive ceremony than in the Roman Rite. The priest accompanied by the deacon and the acolytes and censer-bearers, goes to the prothesis (a small side altar where the proskomide is performed) and they solemnly bring the blessed bread and wine tlirough the small diaconal door of the iconostasis and proceed to the centre of the church or at least directly in front of the royal doors, wliere, turning to the people and holding the sacred gifts in their hands they pray successively for the eccle- siastical and secular authorities. In the Greek Orthodo.x Church prayers are said for the emperor or king, the Holy Synod, and the various church dignitaries. In the Greek Catholic Church these prayers are said for the Pope, the Archbishop, JEmperor, King, etc., using the same words. The priest and deacon then proceed solemnly to the altar bearing the Sacred Elements through the royal doors. This part of the Greek Mass is called the Great Entrance. After the paten and chalice have been placed on the altar the priest completes the Offertory with this prayer: "Receive also tne prayer of us sinners and cause it to approach Thy Holy Altar, and strengthen us to present gifts and spiritual sacrifices unto Thee for our sins and the ignorances of the people, and count us worthy to find grace before Thee; that our sacrifice may be acceptable unto Thee; and that the spirit of Thy grace may rest upon us and upon these gifts presented, and upon all Thy people". (See Consecration; Mass; Prep- ace; Greek Rite.) Many of the Oriental Anaphoras may be read in Renatjdot, Liturgiarum Orientalium CoUectio (Frankfort ed., 1847); Goar, Euchoiogium, sive Rituale Grn-carum (2d ed., Venice, 1730); J. A. AssEMAMi, Codez Liturgicus (Rome, 1754). Cf. also Lebrun, Explication liUerale, etc,, de la Messe (hihge, 1781); Neale, a HUtory of the Holy Eastern Church (London, 1850), I. 461; Brightman, Liturgies, Eastern and Western (Oxford, 1906), passim: Probst, Liturgie der drei ersten christl. Jahrhun- derte (Tubingen, 1870); Renz. Gesch. des Mess-Opferbegriffs (Freising, IBOl). I, 311-524; Diet, d'arch. chrft.. I, 1898-1919; Parrino, La Messa Greca, (Palermo, 1904)35. Andrew J. Shipman. Anarchy. — (d privative, and ipxv, rule); anarchy means an absence of law. Sociologically it is the modern theory which proposes to do away with all existing forms of government and to organize a society which will exercise all its functions without any controlling or directive authority. It assumes as its basis that every man has a natural riglit to develop all his powers, satisfy all liis passions, and respond to all liis instincts. It insists that the in- dividual is the best judge of liis own capacity; that personal interest, well understood, tends to improve general conditions; that each one recognizes the ad- vantage of justice in economic relations; and that mankind, in the man, is right in what it does. As a human being is a free, intelligent agent, any re- straint from without is an invasion of his rights and must be set down as tyranny. Proudhon (1809-6.')), whose writings are diffuse, obscure, and paradoxical, IS regarded as the father of the system; but Diderot IS claimed by some, and also the association of the Enrages, or II iherlUtci of the French Revolution. Accordmg to Proudhon, "anarchy is order" and, borrowing from J. J. Rousseau, ^man is naturally pood, and only institutions are bad". Also accord- ing to him, "all property is theft". As crime is mostly committed against property, abolishing one is preventing the other. Criminals are not to be punished, but treated as lunatics, or sick men. There are to be no rulers in Church or State; no masters, no employers. Religion is to be eliminated, because it introduces God as the basis of authority, and degrades man by inculcating meekness and sub- mission, thus making him a slave and robbing him of his natural dignity. Free love is to take the place of marriage, and family hfe, with its restraints, is to cease. To the objection that men cannot live together without society, both because of the implied contra- diction in such a claim, and because of the social instinct in man, the answer is; We do not destroy society, but exclude authority from it. ."Vnarchy supposes an association of individual sovereigns act- ing independently of any central or coercive power. It aims at a society in which all the members are federated in free groups or corporations according to the professions, arts, trades, business, etc., which happen to suit the fancy of each, so that not only will all be co-proprietors of everything — land, mines, machines, instruments of labour, means of produc- tion, exchange, etc. — but everyone will thus be able to follow liis own individual bent. Moreover, as all are united in a harmony of interests, all will labour in unison to increase the general welfare, just as is done in business corporations, in which union is based on mutual advantage, and is free from all pressure from without. As to the means to be employed to bring about this ideal condition, opinion is divided, some holding for the evolutionary, some for the revolutionary method; the former proposing to realize their Utopia by the means now at their disposal, chiefly universal suffrage; while the latter are determined to effect it at once by violent metliods. In this respect the first class shades off into collective socialism, the second remaining pure anarchists. Both, however, differ from socialism on one very important point. For while agreeing with anarchists in the desirability of abohsliing all existing institutions, sociahsm aims at what it calls "socialized society". It postulates a central power which will assign occupations, dis- tribute awards, and supervise and direct the collective interests. It absorbs the indi'idual in favour of the State; anarchy does the very opposite. Generally speaking, also, socialism reprobates violent methods and seeks its end by gradual evolution from present conditions. Its public alienation from anarchical methods is evidenced in its treatment of the Russian Bakounin, who was conspicuous for his actiWty in the French Revolution of 1848, and who, when handed over to Russia, escaped from Siberia and fomented the Ru.ssian disorders of 1869, chiefly through his agent Netschaieff, and was finally asso- ciated with Cluseret and Richard in the atrocities of the French Commune of 1871. In 1868 he had established the International Alliance of Social Democracy, and endeavoured to unite it wWh the International Association of Workingmen founded by the socialist Marx in 1S64. The coalition was of short duration. A violent schism began at the Congress of the Hague, in 1872, and then the party of anarchy may be said to have begun as a distinct organization. Bakounin subsequently organized the Fid&ation Jurassietuie. He issued a paper calleil t he Avant Garde, but nothing much was done until the founding of La R(vollc by Elis6e Reclus and Kropot- kin. The principles of anarchy were again repudiated in the Socialist Congress of Paris in 1<SS1 (from which the anarchists were expelled) and in congresses at Zurich, in 1893, and at Hamburg and London, in 1897. It was in the sixth Congress of the Marxists, held in Geneva in 1863, that the distinctive term of Anarchist was applied to an autonomous seo