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ANASTASIA 45.i ANASTASIA tion of that Convention. But how far the theories and practice of eacli run into those of the other is didicuh to determine. For, independently of oflicial proiioiiiuftiients by the various congresses, the lines of domarcation between the two movements are not iinfrequuiitly obscure. Thus, acconhng to some writers, anardiists may be cla.ssified first as extreme Individuahsls; those, namely, who regard the in- tervention of the State as a "nui.sance" — such is the tenn employed — which is to be reduced as soon as possible to a minimum. This was the position of Ilcrlicrt Spencer and .Vuberon Herbert, who would pr()l)al)ly liave re.sented being placed in the category of anarchists. Spencer's doctrine about the mini- mizing of govcrnmont authority was borrowed from (loo<lwin's "rulitiial Justice" (1793). A second class Miiglit l)e dcscribetl as Expectant.s; those who are willing to admit a central control until public opinion is sulhcicntly educated to dispense with it. William Morris left the Social Democrats when he found himself drifting in that direction. Finally there are the Universal Negatives, or Nihilists, who believe in the assassination of rulers and in other vio- lent manifestations of hatred of present conditions. The first so-called scientific exposition of this nihilistic anarcliism -seems to have been made by the eminent French geographer lClis(e Hcclus antl the Ru.ssian Prince Kropotkin, who built it into a definite system, though a similar claim is made for Hess, who in 1843 publislicd two volumes on " Philosophic der That uiid Siizialismus". Griin and Stern also formulated their tlieories about the .same time. The publication of the lifvoltc by Heclus and Kropotkin was immedi- ately followcil by frightful acts committed by avowed anarchists, both in Europe and .Vmerica, not only the assassination of rulers — the murder of McKinley is an instance — but the throwing of bombs in legislative halls, the wrecking of churches, the killing of the police, as in Chicago, etc. This was the propaganda by acts which had been advocated by Bakounin; but both Reclus and Kropotkin pro- tested that their conception of anarchy did not contemplate such excesses. Whether tiiey .spoke the truth or feared public execration must be left to each one to juilge. It was only after the attempted a.ssa.s.sination of the Emperor William, in 1878, that the Cierman Socialists, Bebel and Liebknechf, de- cbired against anarchy. In France, at the present time, the party that has not only suppressed the Church, but is clamouring for the suppression of the army and preaching revolt to the soldiers, ridiculing the idea of patriotism and demanding the aboHtion of national frontiers, are anarcliists. but at the same time they .seem to affiliate with the Socialist party now in control of the Government. Whether it is sympathy or a design to let anarchy do the work of destruction on which .socialism is to build up its future State, is not a subject of controversy, at least among con.servative Frenchmen. It is m France tliat anarchy at the present time is showing its hand, and exercising the greatest power, though it is not known by its distinctive name. But as a matter of fact, where socialism professes atheism it is already anarchy. Thus far the anarchists seem to have no central organization; but they publish 14 papers in French, though not all of them are printed in France; 2 in English, one in London, and the other in New York; 3 in (ierman; 10 in Italian; 4 in Spanish; 1 in Hebrew; 2 in Portuguese and Bohemian; 1 in Dutch. As there is no compact organization, and as their principles are often admitted by those who arc not avowed anarchists, it is next to impossible to form an exact idea of their actual numbers. The root of all this evil is the apostasy from Christianity, so marked in some countries, and the acceptance, or influence, of atheism. Once given that there is no God, it immediately becomes unjust and impossible for anyone to e.xact obedience and submission from anyone else. If there is no (iod, tliere can be no master. The anarchist conclusion is logical., all the commandments of God are necessarily abrogated, and the claim that a man has a ripht to satisfy all his propensities and pa.ssions stands ju.stified. There can be no family, no Slate, no Church, no .society of any kind. The individual is to bo the centre and determining power of everything, anil it is their cult of the individual, originating in the egoism of the philosophy of Hegel, and perhaps culminating in Nietzsche, with his atrocious " super- man ", which has been the means of accelerating the spread of anarchical tloctrines. The distorted con- ceptions of liberty of thought, liberty of the press, liberty of .speech, liberty of conscience, which are claimed as rights, and are regarded as e.s.sential in modern civilization, no matter to what extravagance they may be carried — even to the propagation of the most re'olutionary anil immoral (loctrines — have magnified the imirortance and sacredness of the individual until he has become a law unto him.self in ethics and religion, and is practically persuaded of his absolute independence of his Creator in his conduct of life. In much of the literature of the day there exists almost an iilolatry of human power, no matter with how much crime it is associated. Again, the methoil of education in some countries, which absolutely debars even the mention of the name of God from the schools, and which admits no reUgious instruction, or only an ethical code without sanction or authority, could not fail to develop a generation of anarchists. Their fathers have some memories of religion and a sense of obligation cling- ing to them; the rising generation will have none. Finally, the excessive accumulation of wealth in the hands of a few by sujjposedly ilishonest methods, and its alleged use in corrupting legislatures to perpetuate abuses, furnish material for unprincipled demagogues to arouse the worst passions of the multitude. Moreover, een if the condition of the jKior is not as bad as formerly, the contrast with the luxury of the rich is sufficient to excite cupidity and anger, while the absence of religious motives makes poverty and suffering not only insupportable, but, m the eyes of the victim.s, unnecessary and unjust. The theory of anarchy is against all reason. Apart from the fact that it runs coimter to some of the most cherished instincts of humanity, as, for instance, family life and love of country, it is evident that society without authority coiJd not stand for a moment. Men whose only purpose would be to satisfy all their inclinations are by the verj- fact on the level of the animal creation. The methods they already employ in the pro.secution of their designs show now the animal instincts ouickly assert them- selves. The only remedy of tiic disorder is ei- dently a return to right reason and the practice of religion; and, as a protection for the future, the inculcation of Christian morality in the education of youth. Hakolnin. Dieu rl Vltat (Paris, 1895); Pbocdhon, (Eurrti (Paris. l.SoU; Hf.rzkn, De I autre rite; Tchemchkwsky. L'fconomie politique jimi-e liar la science; ELIsfen Heclu.s, Evolution el Revolution (IVri.s, 1891); Spkncer, The Individual V8. the .S^I//■,• Kmile Gautikk, Propos anarchislea; Ileures de travail; Kkopotkin, Aui jeunes gcna; Parole d'un ri-volte; Tucker, hutaul <>/ a Book (New York, 1893); Ely, The /xifcor Movcmml in America (Ixjnilon. 1890); Kerki'P. .1 Uialury of Socitiliani (London, 1S02); Revua dea Dcur Mondea (Nov. 15, 18B3). T. J. Campbell. Anastasia, Saint, Chttrch op. See Rome. Anastasia, .Smxt, mautvu. — This saint enjoys the distinction, uni(]ue in the Roman liturg}', of having a special commemoration in the second .lass on ChristnuLs tlay. This .Mass was originally celebrated not in honour of the birth of Christ, but m cominenv