Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/513

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457

ANATHOTH 457 ANATOMY live. This explains why the most severe and ter- rifying formulas of excommunication, containing all I lie rigours of the Maranatha have, as a rule, clauses like this: Unless he Ijecomes repentant, or gives sat- isfaction, or is corrected. VioouRODX in Dut. ile la Bible, a. v. Analhhne; Vacant in Diet, lie thiol. cath.,i<. v. . athhne; 'oN ScHKttER in Kirchm- Irx.. IM <hI., 1, 7U4-798; Hknedict XIV, De Sunodo Diaceaand, X, I. Joseph N. Gionac. Anathoth, (ms.sibly i)lur:d of Anath, a feminine Chaldean deity, worsliippcil in Chanaan [Enc. Bib. s.v, Anath; La«ran{;e, "Junes" (Paris, 1903), 62-63]. (1) .'Vnathoth is identified with Anata, about two ami a half niile.s north-east of Jerusalem, and everything favours that identification; around Anata are found the names of the villages mentioned in Isaias, x, 28. From its height (2235 ft.), Anata, whidi .seems to have been fortified m the past, com- niauds a fine but desolate view east and south-east; the north end of the Dead Sea and the Lower Jordan are visible acro.ss the hills of the wiklerness. Be- tween Jerusalem and . atti ri.se the heights of the Scupus (Mesarif). where Titus and his legions en- camped when l)esii'ging Jerusalem. On tho.se heiglits is built the village of El 'Tsawiyeh (2390 ft.), perhaps the Lai.sa mentioned witli . athoth in Isaias, x, 30 (Buld, Geograpliie des alien Paliistina. 17.'>). Anathoth is reckoned among the Ixivitical cities of Benjamin (Jos., xxi, 18; 1 Par., vi, 60). Abiezer, one of Da d's valiant men, was from that city (11 K.. xxiii, 27), which had also given to David one of his first followers in the jxTson of Jehu (I Par., xii. 3). There Abiathar the priest, had lands, to which he was banislied by Solomon, suspicious of the understanding between liis brother .donias and .biathar (III K., ii, 26). (.)iu' liundicd and twenty- eight men of .Vnathoth returned from Hal)yl<>n. accoril- ing to the list in I E.sd. (Ezra), ii, 23 and II Esdr. (Neh.), vii, 27. But its chief interest lies in the fact that it was the home of Jeremias' family (Jer., i, 1; xxix, 27; xxxii, 7-9). But there he also, "the type ... of the incomparable One", experienced that "no prophet is accepted in his own country" (Jer., xi, 21-23). (2) One of the sons of Bechor (Uecher in the genealogy of Benjamin) I Par., vii, 8. (3) One of the subscribers to the covenant [II Esd. (Neh.). X, 19]. C'liEVNK, Jeremiah, hit Life and Timet (1888), 21-22; BuHl., Cri>uraphie Jet alien Palattina U89ti), 175; Smith, The Ilitlori- ral Oeographv of the llolu Ixind, (12lli e<l. New York, 1900), 253 n. 4; 31S, sqq.; H^dekkr-Uenziueb, Palattina und ■Syrien, (6th ed. Leipzig, 1004), 88. Edward Aubez. Anatolia, S.jnt, Virgin and Martyr in the time of Dccius, wa.s put to death in the city of Thynnn, or Thurium, or Thora. About the identity of the place there is considerable discu.ssion among the critics. She was living in retirement with her sister when the persecution was raging, and was sought in marriage by a youth named Aurelius. That she was actually espoiLsed, the Bollandists doubt. On the point of yielding bccau.se of the solicitations of her sister Victoria, she was strengthcneil by the vision of an angel. Banisliwi to Thora she was do- noimced as a Christian. The executioner Audax shut her up in a room with a venomous .serpent, but seeing that no liarm wius done to her lie hini.self pro- fes.sed the faith and died a martyr. Anatolia was put to death by the sword. Her feast is kept 9 July. Acta SS,. July, II. T. J. CAMPBELL. Anatolius, Saint, Bishop of T,aodirea in Syria, d. 2S3: a fcircniost .sohular of his day in the phy.sical sciences and in Aristotelean [ihilosophy. There arc fniginents of ten books on aritlunetic written by him, and also a treatise on the time of the I'a.srlial cele- bration. A very curious story is told by Eusebius of the way in which Anatolius broke up a rebellion in a part of Alexandria known as the Bruchium. It was lield by the forces of Zenobia, and being strictly beleaguered by the Romans was in a state of starva- tion. The saint, who was living in the Bruchium at the time, made arrangements with the besiegers to receive all the women and children, as well as the old and infirm, continuing at the same time to let as many as wished profit by the means of escaping. It broke up the defence and the rebels surrendered. It W!is a patriotic action on the part of the saint, as well iis one of great benevolence, in saving so many innocent victims from death. In going to Laodicea he was seized by the people and made bishop. Whether his friend Eusebius had died, or wlictlicr they both occupied the see together, is a matter of much discussion. The question is treated ut length in the Bollandists. His feast, like that of his name- sake the Patriarch of Constantinople, is kept on 3 July. Acta SS., I, July; Michadd, Biog. Univ,; Bahino-Gould, Lives of the Sainlt (London, 1872), T. J. Campbell. Anatolius, Saint, Patriarch of Constantinople in the time of Theodosius the Younger. The lieretic Dioscurus had favoure<l his appointment a.s patri- arch, hoping for his support , but he found in Anatolius a determined enemy, who in the Council of Chalcedon condemned him and his followers. How he died is disputed, but it would appear that the heretics put him to death. Baronius says this occurred in 458 after eight years in the patriarchate. The great annalist condemns him in a somewhat violent man- ner, for conniving with Dioscurus for his appointment to the .see; for demanding in contravention of the statutes of Nica>a, the supremacy of Const;intiMo])le over Antioch and Alexandria; for insincerity in o|)pcis- ing a new formula of tloctrine; for declaring that Dioscurus was not condemned at Ephesus, on accoimt of the faith; for removing the meritorious jEtius from the archidiaconate, and naming the unworthy Andrew; for weakness, if not connivance in dealing with the heretics. All of these serious accusations are discussed by the Bollandists, who give a verdict in favour of AnatoliiLs. He is held by thein to he a true Catholic, a .saint, and a prophet. The Pope blamed him, not for error but becau.se he permitted himself to Ix; con.sccrated by a schismatic. One entliusiastic biographer narrates that his miracles and his combats e(|ual in number the sands of the sea. He was born at Alexandria, and before becoming patriarch distinguished liimself at Ephesus against Nestorius, and at Const:mtiiiople against Eutyclies, though the profession of faith which he drew up was rejected by the papal legates. When he w!»s in danger of death he was restored to healtli by St. Daniel the Stylite, who came to Constantinople to see him. His feast is kept 3 July. Aria SS. 3 July; .Smith in Diet, of Chritt, Biog.; Hekoen- RoTllEU, flitl. dc I'tfjlite, II. T. J. Campbell. Anatomy (dr., draro^ij) literally, cutting up, or dissection; now used to signify the science of the form and structure of living bemgs. It is a depart- ment of biology that is divided into animal and vegetable anatomy. Animal anatomy is further divided into comparative anatomy, that is, the study of different animals for purposes of compari.son, and six-cial anatomy which studies the form and stnicture of a single animal. This last embraces the departments of embrj'ologj', the study of the forma- tion of living l)eings, and morphology, the study of the form and stnicture. Kurlher important divisions are: phy,siological anatomy, the study of parts in relation to their fimctions; surgical or tojxigraphical anatomy which considers the relations of different parts, and pathological anatomy which tre;»ts of