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474

ANDREW 474 ANDREW indicate the variety of themes. In addition to these, ten other canons and four triodia furnish illustra- tions of his work in the second, third, and fourth Authentic, and the second and fourth plagal tones. He is also credited witli the authorship of many idiomela (short, detaclicd troparia, somewhat similar to our antiphons), found in the offices of thirteen feasts of the Greek calendar, usually as doxasticha and aposiicha at Lauds and Vespers, and in pro- cessional and vesperal stichera. (The word idiomela is variously interpreted as suggesting that each idiomelon has its own proper melody, or, under- standing mclox poetically, rhythm. Sometimes irfi'o- mda are comljined in a series, and are then called .stichera idiomela; Ijut in this case they seem to pre- serve no structural similarity or affinity, and have been compared to irregular verses in English.) P. G.. XCVII, 789-1444; Petit in Diet, d'arch. ctirct. et de lit., s. v.; Marin in Diet, de thiol, cath.. s. v.; Neale, Hi/mns of the Eastern Church, for translations of portions of ttie Great Canon and Idiomela. H. T. Henry. Andrew of Lonjumeau, Dominican missionary and papal amljassador, b. in the Diocese of Paris; died c. 1253. He first appears in the company of missionaries sent to the East by Blessed Jordan of Saxony in 1228. On this journey he gained great pro- ficiency in several Oriental languages. When Baldwin II gave over the Crown of Thorns to King Louis IX, .Andrew was commissioned, together with the Domini- can James of Paris, to bear the sacred treasure to France. But on reaching Constantinople, they were asked by the barons, who ruled in the vacancy, to carry the relic to the Venetians, to whom it had, in the meantime, been sold. Both set out about Christ- mas, 1238. At Venice Andrew rernained behind in custody of the Crown of Thorns and James hastened to King Louis for further instructions. Were the lat- ter willing to guarantee two hundred thousand pounds of gold, the impoverished Venetians were ready to dis- po.se of the relic. In 1239 the two Friars had reached Troyes with the Crown. From that place King Louis carried it on his shoulders to the newly built chapel at Aix. In 1245 Andrew was sent as papal ambassador by Innocent IV to the Oriental schis- matic patriarchs, to induce them to imite with the See of Rome. Contrary to all expectation he found them orthodox as is evident from their joint letter to the Pope, as given in Raynaldus (Ann. EccL, ad an. 1247). Andrew was probably the bearer of this letter to the Holy Father. On his journey to the patriarchs Andrew halted to treat with the Mogul Khan Baiothnoi, and, after his death, with Ercoltai. Though this diplomatic mission utterly failed, as Bernard Guidonis expre.ssly declares (Chronicon, ad an. 1248) we have the testimony of subse- quent missionaries to show that many converts were made to the Faith. Andrew died some time after 1253, for that year he was active as missionary in Palestine. The Franciscan, Rubruquis, in his work on Oriental customs, declares that everything he had heard from Andrew on the subject, was fully borne out by his own pcr.sonal observations. QiETiF AND EcHARD, &S. Ord. Pra:d., I, 140; Tocron, Ilommea iltus. de lordre de S. Dominique, I, 157-105; Chapo- •iiN, /,(;» princea tranfais du moyen dge et I'ordre de Saint Dumnujue, m L'Ann(c Dominicaine, 1901; Morand, Histoire lie la .Samte Chapelle royale du Palain, 1.3 sqq.; MicnKl,, Lea munont lalxnes en Orient, in Im Corresvondance Catholique, 1894— 9o. Thomas M. Schwertner. Andrew of Rhodes (.sometimes, of Colossus), tlicologian, d. 1410. He was a Greek by birth, and born of schismatic parents. In early youth he had no opportunitic^s for education, but afterwards devoted himself to Latin and Greek, and to thcologj-, especially the questions in dispute between the Latin and Greek Churches. The study of the early Fathers, both Greek and Latin, convinced him that, in the disputed points, truth was on the side of the Latin Church. He therefore solemnly abjured liis errors, made a profession of faith, and entered the Dominican Order about the time of the Western Schism. He led thenceforth an apostolic life. He was especially earnest in his efforts to induce his fellow-Greeks to follow in his footsteps ami reunite with Rome. In 141.3 he was made .rchbishop of Rhodes. The Dominican biographer, Eeliard. credits him with having taken an active part in tlie twentieth session of the Council of Constance (1414-18). Others maintain that there is here a confusion with Andrew of Colaczy, in Hungary. At the Council of Basle, he delivered an oration in the name of the Pope (Mansi, XXIX, 468-481). He took part in the Council of Ferrara-Florence, and was one of the six theologians appointed by the Papal Legate, Cardinal Julian, to reply to the objections of the Greeks. He proved that it was fully within the province of the Church to add the Filioque to the Creed, and tliat the Greek Fathers had been of the same opinion. After the close of the Council trouble arose between the Latins and Greeks in Cyprus; the latter accused the former of refusing to hold communion with them. Andrew was sent thither by Eugene IV, and .succeeded in establishing peace. He also succeeded in overcoming the local forms of the Nestorian, Eutychian, and Monothelite heresies. The heretical bishops abjiu'ed and made a profession of faith at a synod held at Nicosia; some of the prelates went afterwards to Rome to renew their profession before the Holy See. There are preserved in the Vatican manuscript copies of his treatise on the Divine essence and operation, com- piled from the commentaries of St. Thomas Aquinas, and addressed to Cardinal Bessarion, also a little work in the form of a dialogue in reply to a letter of Mark of Ephesus against the rites and ceremonies of the Roman Church (P. G., CL, 862). QuETip AND EcHARD. SS. Ord. Pro'd., I, 801; Hefele, Concilienff., VII, 472, 681, et al.; Schmidt, in Kirchenlcx., I. 835; TouRON, Hommes ill. de Vordre de S. Dominique, s. v.; Hurter, Notnenclator (2d ed.), II. 821; see Bzovius, Ann. Eccl. ad an. 14SS, §8, and IIergenrother (ed.) The Mystagogia of Photius, 146 sqq. J. L. FiNNERTY. Andrew the Scot, S.int, Archdeacon of Fiesole, b. probably at the beginning of the ninth century; d. about 877. St. Andrew and his sister St. Britlget the Younger were born in Ireland of noble parents. There they seem to have studied under St. Donatus, an Irish scholar, and when the latter decided to make a long pilgrimage to the holy places of Italy, Andrew accompanied him. Donatus and Andrew arrived at Fiesole when the people were assembled to elect a new bishop. A heavenly voice indicated Donatus as most worthy of the dignity, and being consecrated to that office, he made Andrew his archdeacon. Dur- ing the forty-seven years of his episcopate Andrew served him faithfully, and he was apparently en- couraged by Donatus to restore the church of St. Martin a Mensola and to found a monastery there. Andrew is commended for his austerity of life and boundless charity to the poor. He died shortly after his master St. Donatus; and his sister St. Bridget is believed to have been miraculoasly conducted from Ireland by an angel to assist at his death-bed. After St. "Andrew's holy death, Bridget led the life of a rec^luse for some years in a remote spot among the Apennines. St. Andrew is commemorated on 22 August. .■Ida SS., Feb., I (St. Bridget). .A.ug., IV (.SV. ,lrnr On,. IX (St. Donatus): Colqan, .Acta Sanctorum llil>, ', ; , , i <mu im, 1()45), I, 2,38; O'Hanlon. I.ires of Irish .s',i,«/.s ,lh,l.; n isn/,. VIII: Lanioan, Eccleaiastieal llistory .)/ /rc/.ijN/ i 1 'uiMni, IsJJi. Ill, 280-284; Pdccinelli, Vita del li. Andna ,1, .s,,./i.i ,1 l..i- ence, 1B70); Stokss, Six Monlha in the .lyi. nfums (lAJiidon 1892), 227-278. Hekbekt Thurston.