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ANFOSSI 476 ANGEL master at the church of Santa Maria de' Monti. In 1616 he took holy orders. Anerio was among the first Italian composers to use the eighth note, or quaver, and its subdivisions. He left a large num- ber of works, embracing all the usual forms of sacred music, the Ust of which may be found in Vogel's "WeltHche Vokalmusik Italiens" and Eitner's "Quellen-Lexikon." A peculiarity of his was the use of fantastic titles for liis collections such as "Ghirlanda (U Sacrc Rose" (Rome, 1619); "Selva armonica" (Rome, 1617); " Diporte musicaU" (Rome, 1617). He also arranged Palestrina's celebrated "Missa Papie Marcelli" for four voices, making it more practicable than in its original form of a six- voice mass. His style is partly based on the tratli- tions of the sixtcentli century, partly on the inno- vations of the seventeenth wluch introduced solos with a figured bass. RiEMANN, Dirt, of Music; Grove, Diet, of Music and Musi- cians; Naum.^nn', Geschichte der Musik. 3. A. VOLKER. Anfossi, FiLippo, an Italian Dominican, b. at Taggia, in the province of Genoa; d. in Rome, 14 May, 1825. Pius VII on his return to the Stat«s of the Church appointed him Vicar-General of the Or- der of Preachers and later Master of the Sacred Palace, 1SI5-25. In this quality he carried on the negotiations with Lamennais regarding the correc- tions to be made in his "Essai sur 1' indifference" (Paris, 1821-23). He was among the most ardent defenders of the Roman Church against the various forms of Gallicanism represented by Seipione de Ricci, Vincento Palmieri, and Guillaume de la Lu- zerne. Among his published works are: " della boUa ' .uctorem fidei' in cui si trattano le maggiori questioni che hanno agitate in questi tempi la chiesa" (Rome, 1810 and 1S16); " Motivi per cui il Padre Filippo Anfossi Domenicano ha ereduto di non potere adorare alle quattro proposizioni gal- hcane" (Rome, 1813); "L'unione politico-religiosa considerata nei suoi rapporti coUa civile societil " (Rome, 1822). Hdrter, NoTnenclator, III, 753. Thomas Walsh. Ange de Saint Joseph, French missionary friar of the Order of Discalced Carmelites, b. at Toulouse, 1636; d. at Perpignan, 1697. He wrote works on Oriental pharmaceutics. His family name was Jo- seph de la Brosse. In 1662 he took up the study of Arabic in the convent of San Pancrazio in Rome, under Celestino h San-Liduvina, brother of the great Orientalist Golius; in 1664 he was sent to the East as missionary, and while visiting Smyrna and Ispa- han was instructed in Persian by Balthazar, a Portu- guese Carmelite. He passed ten j'ears in Persia and Arabia, acting as prior at Ispahan and, later, at Basrah. On the capture of the latter place by the Turks, he went to Constantinople and succeeded in gaining for his mission the protection of the Sultan, through the mediation of the French ambassadoi'. He was recalled to Rome in 1679, and in 1680 was made superior of missions in Holland, England, and Ireland, where he spent many years. He was Pro- vincial in his order at the time of his death. His writings arc: " Pharmacop<ria Persica, ex idiomate persico in latinum conversa" (Paris, 1681). Hyde (Biographia Britannica, cited by Langl^s, Bi- ographie universcUe) asserts that the credit for this work really belongs to PiNre Matthieu. Another work by P6re .Vnge de .Saint Joseph, which is praised by Bernier, I'^lis de la Croix, and Chardin is "Ga- zophylacium lingua; Persarum" (.msterdam, 1684), a grammar with a dictionary in Latin, Italian, and French. Mahtialih a kco. Joanne-Baptibta, liihi. Script. Carmrl. ticulcentorum; Nlc^RON, Mtmoirct, XXIX, 1!0. Thomas Walsh. Ange de Sainte Rosalie, a French genealogist and friar of the house of the Petits-Peres of the Dis- calced .ugustinians, b. at Blois, 1655; d. in Paris, 1726. His real name was Francois Vaffard. After making his religious profession in 1672, he filled many important offices in the houses of his order, and finally devoted himself to the study of geneal- ogy, contributing extensively to the "Grande dic- tionnaire historique" of Mor^ri. From the mate- rials collected by P^re Anselme and Caille de Fourny he prepared the "Histoire g^n^alogique et chrono- logique de la maison royale de France et des grands- officiers de la couronne", which was left unfinished at his death, but completed by Pdre Simplicien, his collaborator. The latter also prepared three addi- tional volumes. His other works include "L'Etat de la France", edited in 1749 by the Benedictines of Saint-Maur, with a supplementary volume on the coronation, the armorial bearings, and prerogatives of the kings of France. Giraud, Bib. Sac. ThOMAS WaLSH. Angel (Latin angehis; Greek iyyeXo!-, Hebrew, "]N?D, from the root: "]S7, means "one going" or "one sent": messenger). The word is used in Hebrew to denote indifferently either a divine or human messenger. The Septuagint renders it by (S77CX0! which also has both significations. The Latin ver- sion, however, distinguishes the divine or spirit- messenger from the human, rendering the original in the one case by angetus and in the other by legatus or more generally by nuntius. In a few pass- ages the Latin version is misleading, the word angelus being used where nuntius woiUd have better expressed the meaning, e. g. Is., xviii, 2; xxxiii, 3, 6. It is with the spirit-messenger alone that we are here concerned. We have to discuss the meaning of the term in the Bible, the offices and names assigned to the angels, the distinction between good and evil spirits, the divisions of the angelic choirs, the question of angelic appearances, and the development of the scriptural idea of angels. The angels are represented through- out the Bible as a body of spiritual beings intermedi- ate between God and men; "Thou hast made him (man) a littl" less than the angels" (Ps., viii, 6). They, equally with man, are created beings; "praise ye Him, all His angels: praise ye Him, all His hosts . . . for He spoke and they were made. He com- manded and they were created" (Ps., cxlviii, 2, 5; Col., i, 16. 17). That the angels were created was laid down in the Fourth Lateran Council (1215). The decree "Firmiter" against the Albigenses de- clared both the fact that tTiey were created and that men were created after them. This decree was re- peated by the Vatican Council, "Dei Filius". We mention it here because the words: "He that liveth for ever created all things together" (Ecclus., xviii, 1) have been held to prove a simultaneous creation of all tilings; but it is generally conceded that "together" {ximid) may here mean "eqvially", in the sense that all things were "alike" created. They are spirits; the wTiter of the Epistle to the Hebrews says: "Are they not all ministering s]iirits, sent to minister to them who shall receive the inheritance of sahation?" (Heb. ,i, 14). It is as messengers that they most often figure in the Bible, but, as St. Augustine, and after him St. Gregory, expresses it: angelus cat nomen officii and expresses neither their essential nature nor their essential function, viz: that of attendants upon God's throne in that court of heaven of which Daniel has left us a vivid picture: "I beheld till thrones were placed, and the Ancient of Days sat: His garment was white as snow, and the hair of His head like clean wool: His throne like flames of fire: the wheels of it like a burning fire. A swift stream of fire i.s.sued forth from before Him: thousands of thousands ministered to Him, and ten thousand times a hundred thousand stood before Him: the