Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/543

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ANGELIC 483 ANQELIOO Histoire de cr qui •'<«< vattt au Japan . . . traduit par le Cliristlikc, and Vasari says that he prefaced liis paint- P. Morin S.y. a'aris 1625); Relanunc del rtano di Yrzo j ^ praver. His technical eiiuiijnient was sonie- OtomeandMcssma. 1025); SoMMERVoaEL,/<iWu>(A.. III. 3S«^; J- ;,',;' .,^ ,^.._ ,,.,,, .r.l fnr nn irtUt with hia (•harifvoix Histoire du Jaiiun (Pans, 1754), IV anil V; " iKit >lcni Icr, :us was nalural lor an arilnt.MUl ni8 , Varunts Iluetrea, 2d e<l.. I, 413, Joseph M. Woods. Angelic Doctor. See Thom.s Aquin.v.s, S.mnt. Angelic Salutation. See Hail Mary. Angelical Hymn. See (Ilouia is Kxcelsis Dko. V, Fia ('iiuariiii ami hi.'- lll•f:imlill^;^. his work beiiiK rather thin, dry, and hard. His spirit, lidwcviT, glorified liis paintings. His noble holy figures, his beautiful angels, human but in form, robed witli the hues of the sunrise and sunset, and liis supremely earnest saints and martyrs are jier- meated with the siiicerest of religious feeling. His Angelicals, I'hk, a coiigrpgatioii of women early training in miniature and illumination had its fouiulod ut Miliiii al)oiit 'iMt by Countess Luigia iiiHuenoe in his more iiiiixjrtant works, with their Torclli of Guastalla (d. 1.5.59) for "tlie protection and robes of golden embroidery, their decorative arraiige- rec-lamation of girls. Under the direction of .Saint ments and details, and pure, brilliant colours. As for .'Vntonio Zaccaria, founder of the Barnabitcs, they the early studies in art of Fra An^elico, nothing is adopted the Kule of St. .ugusliMe, and ol)tainod the known. His painting shows the influence of the approbation of Paul 111 (l.'):ill. J'lieir garl) wa.s Siiimese school, and it is thought he may have studied that of the Dominicans, and e;uli was addressed as under Gherardo, Stamina, or Lorenzo Monaco. "Angelica", instead of the customary "Sister" or On account of the struggle for the jxintifical throne "Mother". Not being cloistered, they assisted flie between CireKory .II, Benedict XUl, and Alexan- • • ■ •■ ' ■,.■.,.-• , . ■ (brother, being adherents of the first named, in H09 to leave Fie- sule, taking refuge in the convent of their order established at J'oligno in Unibria. The pest devastating that place in 1414, the brothers went to Cortona, where they spent four years and tiien returned to Fie- sole. There Fra An- gelico remained for sixteen years. He was thin invited to Flor- iicr to decorate the III v (Convent of San Mirco which had just li.di allotted to his I Ut, and of which ( n^iiio de' Medici was 1 munificent patron. i Cortona are found -nine of his best pic- tures. It was at Flor- niie, however, where he spent nine years, that he painted his most imix)rtant works. In 144.>, Poix; Kugen- ius I' invited Fra Aiigelico to Rome and gave him work to do in the Vatican, where he painted for him and Barnabites in their missionary work until abiLsc arose, and one of the Angelicals set herself up as a prophetess. In 1557 they were clois- tered, and in i>'2h their statutes were re- ised by St. Charles Borromeo and con- firmed by Urban VIIl. During the political disturbances early in the nineteenth cen- tury their foiindati(iii> were dest roved and the congregation dis- appeared. The Insti- tute of the Ciuastall- ines also foiinde<l by the Countess Torelli is still in existence. Stahi. iu Kirchenli r,; Ro.»*.HlGNOl.l, Vita e I ir/ti delta cmteasa di GuasUdl'l etc. (Milan, lUStl). F. M. RlDGE. Angelico, Fiia, a famous painter of the Florentine school, 1>. near Ciustello di Vic- chio in the province of MugcUo, Tuscany, 138~;d. atUonie, 14.55. He was christened Guido, and his father's name being Pietro he Pa*. Anobuoo was known :us('iuidi>, or Guidolino, di Pietro, but his full appellation to-day is for his successor, Pope Nicholas '. the frescoes of two that of " Bles.sed Fra . gelico Giovanni da Fie- chajjels. That of the r<j/</)f//rt <W .Safrnmcn/o, in the sole". He and his sup|X),sed younger brother, Fra Vatican, was destroyed later by Paul III. Eugeniiis BenedettodaFiesole.orda .Mugello, joined tlieorderof IV then asked him to go to Orvieto to work in the Preachers in 1407, entering the l)<iininican convent at chapel of the Madonna di San Drizio in the cathedral. Fiesole. Giovanni w;i.s twenty years old at the time This work he began in 1447, but did not finish, return- thc brothers began their art careers as illustrators of ing to Rome in the autumnof thatyear. Much later m:uiuscripts, and Fra Benedetto, whiiliad considerable the chapel was finished by Luca Signorelli. Po|ie talent as an illuminator and miniaturist, issuiiposed to ICugenius is said to have offered the painter the place have xssiste<l his more celebrated brother in his famous of Archbishop of Florence, which tlirough modesty frescoes in the convent of San Marco in Florence, and devotion to his art he decUned. At Rome, be- Fra Benedetto was superior at San Domenico at siiles his great paintings in the chapels of the Vati- Fiesole for .some years before his death in 1448. Fra can, he executed .some beautiful miniatures for choral Angelico, who during a residence at Foligno had come books. He is buriinl in Rome in the church of Santa under the influence of Giotto whose work at Assisi Maria sopra Minerva. was within reach, soon graduated from the ilhi- Among the thirty works of Fra Angelico in the mination of missals and choir books into a remark- ably naive and inspiring maker of religious paintings, who glorified the quaint naturalness of his types with a peculiarly pious mysticism. He was convinced cloisters and chapter of the convent of San Marco in Florence (which has been converted into a national museum) is notal>le the famous "Cruci- fixion", with the Saviour between the two thieves that to picture Christ perfectly one must needs bo surroundeii by a group of twenty saints, and with I.— 31