Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/590

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524

ANIMALS 524 ANIMALS place in the D.V.; heron, indeed, should be substituted for charadrion. whereas in the same verse it stands for stork, as the A.V. correctly states it. Hind. — See Hart (sup.). Hippopotamus. — See Behemoth (sup.). Hobby (falco .lubbuteo). See Hawk (sup.). Hoopoe. — See Horp (inf.). Hornet (Hebr., ^Ireah; vespa crabro). — One of the largest and most pug- nacious wa.sps; when disturbed tliey attack cattle and horses; their sting is very severe, capable not only of driving men and cattle to madness, but even of killing them (Exod., x.xiii, 28; Deut., ^^i, 20; Jos., xxiv, 12). Horse. — The horse is never men- tioned in Scripture in connection with the patriarchs; the first time the Bible speaks of it, it is in reference to the Egj^Jtian army pursuing the Hebrews. During the epoch of the conquest and of Judges, we hear of horses only with the Chanaanean troops, and later on with the Phihstines. The hilly country inhabited by the Israelites was not favourable to the use of the horse; tWs is the reason why the Bible speaks of horses only in connection with war. David and Solomon established a cavalry and chariot force; but even this, used exclusively for wars of conquest, seems to have been looked upon as a dangerous temptation to kings, for the Deuteronomy legislation forbids them to multiply horses for themselves. The grand description of the war-horse in Job is classi- cal; it will be noticed, however, that its praises are more for the strength than for the swiftness of the horse. The prophet Zacharias depicts (ix, 10) the Messianic age as one in which no hostilities will be heard of; then all warlike apparel being done away with, the horse v.'Wl serve only for peaceful use. Houp (Lev., xi, 19; Deut., xiv, 18). — The analogy of the Hebrew with the Syriac and Coptic for the name of this bird makes the identification doubtless, although .some, after the example of the A.V., see in the Hebrew dilkhtphdth, the lapwing. The Egyptians worsliipped the houp and made it the emblem of Horus. Hyena. — This word is not to be found in any of the English translations of the Bible; it occurs twice in the Sep- tuagint, Jer., xii, 9, and Ecclus., xiii, 22, being in both places the rendering for the Hebrew name rabhud. The hyenas are very numerous in the Holy Land, where they are most active scavengers; they feed upon dead bodies, and sometimes dig the tombs open to get at the corpses therein buried. Two Hebrew names are supposed to designate the hyena: (1) fabhAA'. This word, which has been interpreted "speckled bird", Jer., xii, 9, by modern translators following the Vulgate, has been rendered by "holy man", Ecclus., xiii, 22. Despite the authorities that favour the above mentioned translation of Jer., xii, 9, the consi.stency of the Septuagint on the one hand, and on the other the parallelism in the latter passage, in addition to the analogj' with the Arabic and rab- binical Hebrew names for the hyena, fairly support the identification of the (abhAA' with this animal. (2) (iyylm, rendered in divers manners in different places: wild beasts. Is., xiii, 21; demons. Is., xx,xiv, 14; dragons, Ps. Ixxiii (Hebr., Ixxiv), 14; Jer., 1, 39. Ibex. — See Goat, Wild (sup.). Ibis. — The word occurs twice in the D.V. (Lev., xi, 17; Is., xxxiv, 11) as an equivalent for y&nsMph; some good authorities, however, though the ydnshuph is mentioned among wading birds, do not admit the above identification and think that the Egj'ptian eagle-owl (bubo asca- laphus), which they term great owl, is spoken of. The ibis was worshipped by the Egyptians as the emblem of Thot. Ichneumon. — See Weasel (inf.). Irchin. — D.V. Ps. ciii, 18. SccCherogrillus (sup.). Jackal. — Frequently alluded to in Holy Writ, though the name is read neitlicr in the D.V. nor in any of the western translations, probably because the animal, liowever common in .frica and .south- western Asia is unknown in European countries. The name regularly substituted for jackal is fox. The jackal seems to be designated in Hebrew by three different names: shiVal, "the digger"; 'iyyim, "the howlers"; and tan, "the stretcher", although we are unable to state the differences marked by these three names. Numerous references may be found through- out the Bible to the jackal's bowlings and gregarious habits. Jerbo.. — This httle animal, at least four species of which abide in Syria, is nowhere nominally mentioned in the Bible; it must, nevertheless, veiy probably be reckoned among the unclean animals indicated under the general name of mouse. Kestrel. — A slender hawk, most likely one of the species intended by Lev., xi, 16, for it is very common in Palestine. The remark of Job, xxxix, 26, strik- ingly points out the tinnulus cenchris, one of the Pales- tinian kestrels. Kid. — See Go.t (sup.). Kine. — See C-4TTLE (sup.). Kite. — .s suggested bj' the anal- ogy with the Arabic, the black kite (mihnis nigrans) is probably meant by Hebr. da'ah or ddyyah (Lev., xi, 14; Deut., xiv, 13; Is., xxxiv, 15), interpreted kite in the D.V.; it is one of the most common of the scavenger birds of prey of the coimtry, and for this reason, is carefully protected by the v-iUrgers. Other kinds of kites, in particular the milvus regalis, are common in Palestine. Lamb. — The Paschal Lamb was both a commemo- ration of the deliverance from the bondage in Egypt, and a prophetic figure of the Son of God sacrificed to free His people from their slavery to sin and death. See EwE. (sup.) Lami. (Is., xxxiv, 14). — Is a trans- lation of Hebrew, ItUth; according to the old popular legends, the lamia was a feminine bloodthirsty mon- ster, devouring men and children. In the above cited place, some kind of owl, eitlier the screech or the hooting owl, is very probably meant. Lammer- GEYER (gypcetus barbatus), very hkely signified by the Hebrew, -p&fs, translated by griffon in D.V. Larus. — Lev., xi,'l6; Deut., xiv, 15. See Cdckoo (sup.). Horse-Leech (Prov., xxx, 15). — Both the medicinal leech and the horse-leech are frequently found in the streams, pools, and wells; they often attach themselves to the inside of the lips and nostrils of drinking animals, thereby causing them much pain. Leop.^rd. — Under this name come a certain number of carnivorous animals more or less resembling the real leopard (jelis leopardus), namely felis jubata, felis lynx, felis uncia, etc., all formerly numerous through- out Palestine, and even now occasionally found, especially in the woody districts. The leopard is taken by the Bibhcal writers as a type of cunning (Jer., V, 6; Osee, xiii, 7), of fierceness, of a conqueror's sudden swoop (Dan., vii, 6; Hab., i, 8). Its habit of lying in wait by a well or a village is repeatedly alluded to. Levhthan. — The word Leviathan (Hebrew. Ihveyathan), which occurs six times in the Hebrew Bible, seems to have puzzled not a little all ancient translators. The D.V. has kept this name. Job, iii, 8; xl, 20; Is., xxvii, 1; it is rendered by dragon Ps. Ixxiii (Hebr., Ixxiv), 14, and ciii (Hebr., civ), 26; The word leviathan means: (1) crocodile (Job, xl, 20 and Ps. Ixxiii, 14); (2) a sea-monster (Ps. ciii, 26, Is., xxvii, 1); (3) possibly the Draco constellation (Job, iii, 8). Lion. — Now extinct in Pidestine and in the surrounding countries, the lion was common there during the O. T. times; hence the great number of wonls in the Hebrew language to .signify it; under one or another of these names it is mentioned a hundred and tliirty times in the Scriptures, as the classical symbol of strength, power, courage, dignity, ferocity. Very likely as the type of power, it became the ensign of the tribe of Juda; so was it employed by Solomon in the decoration of the temple and of the king's house. For the same reason, Apoc., v, 5, represents Jesus Christ as the lion of the tribe of Juda. The craft and ferocity of the lion, on the other hand, caused it to be taken as an emblem of Satan (I Pet., v, 8) and of the enemies of the truth