Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/596

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ANIMUOCIA 530 ANNA is always and eve^}n^•he^e mixed up with religion; it is nowhere the whole of religion. Cf. Anthropology, Mythology, Involution, Totemism, Shamanism, Fetishism, Religion, Spiritism. Ladd, /» Paychologu a Scienccf in Amer. Jour, of Psych., 1894; Jamus, Fsychulomi (2 vols., New York, 1903); Sully, Outlines of Psycholofiii (.New York, 1892); Hoffding, Outlines of Psychology, tr. Ix)wndes (London, 1893); Driscoll. The Soul (New York, 1900); Ladd, Psychology; Descriptive and Erplanatory (New York, 1895); Bowen, Hamilton's Meta- physics (Bo.ston, 1876); Bowse. Metaphysics, A Study of First Principles (New York, 1882); Rickaby, On Gad and His Creahires (Lomlon, 190(i); McCosh, Fundamental Philosophy; Maheh /'si/r/io/oi;!/ (London, 1905); Tylok, Primitive Culture, (2 ed., I.oiiiion, '1891); TiELE, Elements of the Science of Re- lioion^e York, 1896). cf. also his article in Encyctopoedia Britannica; Mlller, Lectures on the Origin of Religion (London, 1878); Pfleiderer, Philosophy and Development of Religion (New York and Edinburgh, 1894); Spencer. Principles of ,^ociolooy (London, 1876-97); Driscoll, Christian Philosophy; God (New York, 1903); De la Sadssate, Manual of the Sci- ence of Rclinion, tr. Colyer-Fergusson (London, 1891); LvBBocK, Oruiin of Civilization (New York, 1895); Duke op .•Vrgyll, Primeval Man (New Y'ork, 1869); CnoQ, Lexigue de la lanijue .Mgonquine (Montreal, 1886); Steinmetz, Ethno- logiscke Studien (Levden, 1894); Brixton, Religions of Primi- tive Peoples (New York, 1S97); Baynes. The Idea of God and the Moral Serise in the Light of Language (London, 1895); Lang, The .Maki'ig of a Religion (London and New York 1898); Robertson Smith, Religion of the Semites (London, 1894); Alger, Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life (Phila- delphia. 1864); Jevons, Introd. to Hist, of Religion (London and New York, 1896); Schneider, Die Naturv<dker (2 vols.. 1885-86); Frazer, The Golden Bough (London, and New York, 1900). J. T. Driscoll. Animuccia, Giov.^.nni, an Italian composer, b. at Florence about 1500; d. 1571. He was a pupil of Claude Goudimel. He was made choir-master at the Vatican and retained this position until his death. He was tlie real predecessor of Palestrina not only in office, but also in his earnest endeavours to attain harmonic clearness in the midst of all the devices of cotmterpoint then so much in vogue. He aimed at perfecting the style of the old Flemish school by harmonic fullness, by a more natural melodic progres- sion of the voices, and a closer correspondence of the melody with the text. His friendship with St. Philip Neri resulted in his appointment as music-master to the new society founded by the Saint. He com- posed the first laudi for its use. These Imuii were songs of praise for several voices, and were always performed after the sermon. For the sake of variety, Animuccia composed single stanzas and later on sin- gle lines in the shape of solos, concluding with a powerful and effective chorus. A first volume of them appeared in 1.566, a second in 1570. These laudi proved to be the germs of the later oratorio, for from their dramatic tone and tendency the oratorio seems to have been developed. In this sense St. Philip Neri has been called the "Father of the Oratorio". In addition, Animuccia composed many masses, motets, psalms, and madrigals of which some were published in Venice and Rome, 1548-68. But his compositions which were never printed are far more numerous, and the MSS. of them to-day are, for the most part, in the Sistine Chapel. — Animuccia, Paolo, brother of Giovanni, d. at Rome, 1563. He was choir-master at the Lateran for two years (1550-52). He left little printed music. There is a motet of his in a collection published at Venice (1568), and madrigals of his composition are found in many of the miscellaneous collections published between 1551 and 1611. Grove, Diet, of Music and Musicians; Rikmann, Diet, of Music; KouNMULLER, Lexikon dcr kirchl. Tonkunst. J. A. VoLKER. Anise (Matt., x-xiii, 23) has been, .since Wyclif, the rendering of ii'iifloi' in the English Versions, But tliis is not accurate. The exact equivalent of the plant iniOou h dill {anethum gravenlcns), while anise corresponds to the pimpinella ani.'ium. The error in translation, liowever, is of no great impor- tance, botli plants belonging to the parsley family (umbellifercE), and sharing many properties in com mon. The dill is an annual plant, "with finely striated stems, usually one foot to one foot ami a half in height, pinnate leaves with setaceous linear segments, and yellow flowers" (Enc. Bib.). The Jews used it as a condiment. It is mentioned several times in Rabbinic hterature, especially in connection with the question of tithes. Beside the articles specified in the Mosaic Law. the Rabbis had, in course of time, subjected to tithe many other objects, extending the prescription to all products of the earth that were esculent and could be preserved. WuNSCHE, Neue Beitrdge zur Erlauterung der Evangetien aus Talmiid un4 Midrasch (Gottingen, 1878), 291-292; Sihaxz, Matthaus-Bvangelium, 469-470; Zahn, Ev. das Mnlthrius, (2d cd.) 645. note 75; Edersheim, Life and T. of J. ^L, U, 412; Nouveau Larousse itlustre (Paris), s. v. Aneth, .Inw. Peucedan; Ne.stle, Anise and Rue, in Expository Times (Aug., 1904), 528; Weiss, Plummer, Schanz, on Luke, xi. 42. Edw'.^rd Arbez. Aniwa Versions of Scripture. See Bible, Ver- sions OF THE. Anna. — Sept. 'Avva; R. V. has Hannah, which is nearer the Hebrew njH, graciousness, from pn, Ha- ndn, to be gracious. (1) Anna (1 K.,i-ii. -I), mother of Samuel, was one of the two wives of Elcana, a man of Ramah, a Zuphite of the hill-country of Ephraim. As a true woman of her nation, she felt keenly the reproach of barrenness, all the more so that her rival, Phenenna, more favoured than she, did not fail to remind her of her affliction (I K., i, 6-7). On one of the family's pilgrimages to Silo, Anna made a vow that, should God bless her with a son, she would con- secrate him to His .service as a Nazarite (I K., i, 9-11). Her prayer was heard, and after weaning her son, she brought liim to Heli in Silo (I K., i, 24-28). This generous fulfilment of her vow was amply re- warded (I K., ii, 21). Anna's canticle (I K., ii, 1-10) gives rise to questions similar to those regarding the Magnificat, to which it has some striking resem- blances. Though a beautiful psalm, it is found in- appropriate on Anna's lips, ha'ing no special reference to her situation, beyond the quite general remark in V. 56. Unless v. lOt be taken as a prophecy of the rise of the monarchy or of the Messiah (cf. Vigouroux, Bible polyglotte, II, 295 note), the can- ticle would be, whatever its more precise date, posterior to establishment of the monarchy. (2) Anna, wife of Tobias, was, like her husbantl, of the tribe of Nephtali (Tob., i, 1-9). Together with her husband and son, also called "Tobias, she was taken into captivity to Ninive by Shahnanaser (i, 2, 11). Her role is quite secondary in the narrative. Her rather passionate nature serves to bring out more strongly by contrast the deeply religious character of Tobias (cf. ii, 19-23 and the beautiful prayer whicli liis misunderstanding with his wife brings on the lips of Tobias iii, 1-6). Her sincere and solici- tous love for her son is well expressed in v, 23-28; X, 1-7; xi, 5 (cf. the remark above). (3) Anna is carefully described by Luke, ii, 36-38, as a prophetess, daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Aser. The biograpliic notes gi-cn by Luke regard- ing the aged prophetess, of whom legend knows that she had had Mary under her tutelage in the Temple, bring out her great sanctity. In spite of her early widowhood, she had never married again, but had devoted her life to the service of (!otl. She answers perfectly the portrait of the model widow of I Tim., v, .5-9. As .sne used to spend most of her time in the Temple, her presence at the scene narrated in Luke, ii, 25-35, is easily understood. Hence her to God, the subject of whicli was Jesus, with the burden that He was the longed-for Rctleemer. (4) .Vnna is the traditional name of the mother of the Blessed Virgin Alary. Driver, Literature of the Old Testament (10 ed.), 174; Note* on the Hebrew Text of Samuel (1890) on I Sam., ii, 1, oQq;