Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/603

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537

ANNAT 537 ANNATES Hanan, Syr. Hanftn) of same derivation as Han- nah (see Anna). Annas, son of Seth, sueceedetl (a. d. a or 7) Joazar in the liigh-priesthood by ap- pointment of Quirinius who liad coiiiu to Judea to attend to the incorporation of Arclielaus's territory into the Roman province of Syria (Josephus, Ant., XVIII, ii, 1). After liis (U-iMisition (a. i>. lo) by V. Gratus, the high-priest.s fiillowcd upon one another in rapid succe.s.sion: I.smael, Klea/.ar (son of Annas; f)erliaps the Alexander of Acts, iv, 6, .■Mexander )eing the Gra?cized name of Kleazar), Simon, until we come to Joseph, called Caiaphas, who knew how to retain the favour of the Roman authorities from A. D. 18 to 36 (Josephus, Ant., XV'III, ii, 2). Hut his depo.sition did not deprive Annas of his influence which must have remained con.sider- able, to judge by the fact that besiile Kleazar. his son, and Joseph Caiaphas, his son-in-law (John, xviii, 13), four other sons, viz., Jonathan (perhaps the John of Acts, iv, 6, where D reads luyi9af), Theophilus, Matthias, Annas (Ananos) II, obtained the dignitv of high-priests (Jos., Ant., XVIII, iv, 3; V. 3; XI.'>^, vi, 4; X.X, ix, 1). The New Testament references to Annas convey the same impres.sion. His name appears with that of Joseph Caiaphas, who was the actual liigh-priest during the ministry of the Saviour (Matt., xxvi, 3. 57; John, xi, 49, 51) in the elaborate synchronisms wherewith St. Luke introduces the public ministry of Our Lord (Luke, iii, 2). The commanding position of the former high-priest is attested also by the prominent place awarded to liim in Acta, iv, 6; here Annas is intro- duced as "the High-Priest", whilst Joseph Caiaphas's name simply follows with those of the other mem- bers of the high-priestly race. Those fomiulip, which miglit leave on the reader the impres.sion that the author considered Annas and Caiaphas as dis- charging the functions of the high-priesthood simul- taneously (Luke, iii, 2), or even tnat Annas alone was the actual high-priest (Acts, iv, 6), have given rise to many hypotheses^ more or less plausible. They are to be considered as not strictly accurate, but they are a testimony to the ascendency of Annas. But Annas is more than a mere chronological land- mark in the hfe of the Saviour; according to our common text of Jolm, xviii, 13-27, Annas would have playetl a part at a decisive point of the life of Jesus. After His arrest, the Lord is brought di- rectly to Annas, in whose palace a kind of unofficial, preliminary interrogatorj' takes place, an episode entirely omitted by the Synoptists. It must be said, however, that the common text seems to be here in a ilisturbed condition, as Maldonatus had already remarked (I, 427-428). If the order of Syr. Sin. (XVIII 13, 24, 14-15, 19-23, 16-18, 25-27) be adoptetl, the succession of the facts gains in clearness and consistency, though the . nas episode becomes altogether secondary in the narrative. The "house of . nas", wealthy and imscrupidous. is pronounced accursed in the Talmud, together with "the corrupt leaders of the priesthood", who.«e presence defiled the sanctuary (i;dersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah 1,263 f.). Commmttirifs on Luke, iii, 2, e.*«pecially those of SciiANZ, Pn'MMKB. Wkis-h. and Holtzmann; on Acta, iv, 6, Knowl- im;. Erponilora Greek Tetlament (New York. 1900). II, anil Bl.AJ*.^; on John, ttHH, 12-27. Cai.mfj*. Commmtarieg (Paris. 19041. ■119-122; Zaun, Einl. in dot .V. T. (LeipjiR. 1900). II. 509. 510. 524; Dhummond, The .Xulhorthip and Character of the Fourth O'otpel (^I-oniion. 19OTI, 4,34-43fi; .Mofkatt, The Hittorieal .V. T. (Edinhiirnh. 1901). p. xl anil CiW win.; Bui- NKAr. llarmtmu nf the Gosprlt (New York. 1S98). 121 .sqq. or Synopte irantirliaue (I'ari.t. 19011. ICw s<|<i.; Soiu hkr, The Jewifh I'rople in the Time of J. C. (.Ir.) Div. 11, I. 182 •i<iq., 198, and 202-200. „ Edward Akbez. Annat, FRANfois, French Jesuit, theologian, writer, and one of the foremost opponents of Jan- senism, b. 5 February, 1.590, at Rode/.; d. in Paris. 14 June, 1670. He entered the novitiate of the Society of Jesus, 16 February, 1607, was pro- fessor of philosophy for six, and of tneology for seven years, in the college of his order at loulouse, of which he was subse<|uontly appointed rector. Later he filled the same olhce at Montpellier. He was A.ssistant to the (jeneral in Rome, and I'roviiu-ial of Paris. In 1654 he was sent to court as confessor to Louis XIV, and, after the faithful and un.sel(isli discharge of the responsible duties of this ollice, he felt compelled to resign, owing to the illicit attach- ment of the King to the Duchesse de la Vallidre. He Ijecame known to the learned world, in 1632, by the publication of a defence of the Jesuit doctrine of Divine grace against the Oratorian Gibieuf. In 1644 he began a series of more lengthy contributions to the celebrated controversy that sought to recon- cile human freedom with Divine efficacious grace. He was prominent in defending Catholic ortliodoxy against the attacks of the Port Royal theologians, and merited, in consequence, the notice of the versatile Pascal, who directed the last of the "Pro- vincial Letters" against P6re Annat. A full de- scription of his pul)lished works may be found in Sommervogel's " BibliothiViue do la compagnie de Jdsus". A complete edition, in three volumes, of his writings appeared in Paris, in 1666, under the title "Opuscula fheologica". James J. Sulliva.v. Annates, the first fruits, or first year's revenue of an ecclesiastical benefice paid to the Papal Curia (in medieval times to bishops also). One result of the centralizing of ecclesiastical administration in the Roman Curia during the course of the thirteenth century was that ecclesiastical Ijenefices became more and more generally "collated," i. e. granted, directly by the Pope. This was so, not only in the case of bishoprics and monasteries, vacancies which were filled by Rome either by direct appointment or by papal confirmation, but also in the case of smaller church livings (canonicatcs, parishes, etc.). On such occasions the papal treasury received from the new incumbent a certain tax derived from the income of the living. Since the fifteentli century this tax has been generally known as annates, a term compre- hending all money taxes paid into the Apostolic Camera (papal treasury) on the occasion of the collation of any ecclesiastical benefice by the Pope. Ciider this term were included four classes of pay- ments: (1) the serfitia communia, payable on the granting of bishoprics or monasteries, appointments made in a consistory; these payments were divided between the cardinals and the papal treasurj'; (2) the servitia mimita, due on like occasions to various subordinate officials of the Curia; (3) the real annatw in the narrower sense of the term, which were paid on the granting of a minor ecclesiastical benefice by the Poix; outside of the consistorj-; all these payments reverted to the Apostolic Camera; (4) the so-called quindcnnia, payable everj' fifteen years by livings jx-rmancntly united with some other benefice. Originally, however, in the tliirteenth and fourteenth centuries, nnHo/n-, orannatia, signified only the third class, the taxes derived from lesser benefices. In their origin, therefore, as well as in actual char- acter, annates are distinct from other money tributes received by the papal treasurj-, or Camera, from eccle- siastical persons and institutions — from the census paid by individual churches and monasteries in recognition of their direct dependence on the Chair of St. Peter, the pallium moneys contributed by an ardibishop on receiving the pallium, the visita- tion tributes given by an individual bishop and archbisliop on his regular visUalio ad limina. Still more arc annates to be distinguished from the Peter's- Pence accruing to the Papal Curia chiefly from the kingdoms of Northern Europe (F.ngland. Den- mark, Poland, etc.) in token of a certain protection