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541

ANNIUS


541


ANNUNCIATION


the Constitution, "Apostoliea? Sedis" (Ricti, 1880), is also valuable to tlieologians and canonists.

HuRTFR. NotnencUxloT, 111, 1448; Heuonet, in I>icl. de Thiol. Cath.. a. v.

John J. a' Becket.

Annius of Viterbo (Giovanni Nanni), arclieolo- gi.-i| and historian, b. at Viterbo about 1432; d. 13 November, \M2. He entered the Dominican Order early in life and won fame as a preacher and writer, lie was higlily esteemed by Si.xtus IV and Alexander VI; the latter made liim Master of the Sacred Palace. He was skilled in the Oriental languages, and was so devoted a student of chissical anti<iuity that he changed his name to one that reminded him of Home's Golden Age. Among his numerous writings may Ije mentioned: (1) "De fu- turis Christianoruni triumnliis in Turcos et Sara- cenos"; a commentarj' on tne Apocalyixsc, dedicated to Sixtus IV, to Christian kings, princes, and gov- ernments (Genoa, 1480); "Tractatus ile imperio Turcorum" (Genoa, 1480). He is best known, how- ever, by his " Antiquitatum Varianun ". 17 vols. (Venice, 1499, el seep.). In this work he published alleged writings and fragments of several pre- Christian Greek and Latin profane authors, destined to throw an entirely new liglit on ancient history. He claimed to have discovered them at Mantua. This work met at once both witii believers in the genuineness of his sources, and with .severe critics who accused him of wilful interpolation, or even fabrication. The spurious cliaractcr of these "his- torians" of Annius, which he publislied both with and witliout conunentaries, lias long been admitted. It would appear that he wiis too credulous, and really believed the texts to be autlientic. It may be re- called that Colbert left to the liibtiothique Rationale at Paris a manuscript of the tiiirteentli centurj', supposed to contain fragments of tlio writings of two of these writers, i. e. Berosus and M('i;a.-itlienes. The more important of liis unpulili.shcd works are: "Volumen libris septuaginta distinctum dc anti- quitatil)us ot gestis Etruscorum"; "De corrcctione typograpliica chroniconim"; " De dignitate otficii Magistri 8acri Palatii", and lastly, his "Chronologia Nova", wherein he undertakes to correct the anach- ronisms in the writings of Eusebius of Cffisarea.

Stahl, in Kirchrrtlej., I, 860-867; HcRTER, Nomencta- tOT, IV, 954-955; Tocron, Hommet ill. de Vordre de S. Domi- nique, III, 655; QcfcriF and Ecbard, S.S". Ord. Prod., II, 4-7. Jos. SCHROEDER.

Anniversary. See Feast.

Anno, (or II.\xno) Saint, Archbishop of Cologne in l().5o. When very young he entered the eccle- siastical state, under the guidance of his uncle, a canon of Baml)erg. He had formerly adopted the profession of arms. His att;iinnients Iwth in sacred and profane learning, as well xs his unusu.il virtue, attracted the attention of the lOmjieror Hcnrj' III who called him to his court. He is said to have been a man of remarkably handsome presence and of rare eloquence and in a very special way adapted for great undertakings. A lover of right and justice, he de- fended them fearlessly in all circumstances. He was made Archbisliop of Cologne, and liis consecra- tion was a scene of unwonted splendour, though very frj'ing to him, as he accepted the olFice witli the

f-eatest repugnance. At the death of Hcnrj-. the mpress Agnes made him regent of the empire, and entrusted him with the education of the young prince, afterwards Henrj' IV, who had already been corruptefl by the flatterers who surrounded him. The Archbishop's strictness was soon found to be distasteful to the prince, and he was deprived of his office of regent, but the disorders which followed on account of the exactions and injustice of those who were attached to Heiirj' became so unbearable


that in 1072 Anno sigain resumed the reins of government.

The Church at that time was torn by the schisma of antipoix^i. Anno joined witli Ilildcbrand and St. Peter Damian in the work of order and refor- mation. Hergenrother, however, speaks of "the dis- content of the court of ( iermany because of the fre<iuent sharp reprehensions addressed to the iiowerful Anno by Pofje Nicholas II" (Hist, de I'^glise, III, 283). It was probably because of a plea for more [xiwer to be given to the Geriiiaii emperors in papal elections. The feeling was .so bitter in Germany tiiat a union was made with the bad elements of Italy, and an anti|)ope in the t)crson of Cadalus, the Bishop of Parma, was put forward. The rightful Pope, at the time, was Alex- ander II. At a great lussembly held at Augsburg in 1002, Anno pronounced a discourse in favour of Alexander, but wsis unable to obtain the adhercme of all the bishops. A council at Mantua ruled in favour of Alexander; the Empress Agnes had been won over by St. Peter Damian- but the influence of Adalbert, the .Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen, and others prevailed to such an extent that it was im- possible to separate CJermany altogether from Cadalus, who, however, died four years later. According to Hergenrotlier (Hist, de r('>gliso. III, 377), the auto- cratic nepotism of prelates, so common then, was shared by Anno, and he instances the giving of the Archbishopric of Trier to his nephew Cunon, who because of it was assa,ssinated shortly after his ap- pointment. Whether or not this be true, it is cer- tain that the cares of state did not prevent Anno from fulfilling his duty as a bishop. His prayer was continuous, iiis austerities extreme, his preaching incessant, his charity inexhaustible. He reformed all the monasteries of his diocese and established five new ones for the Canons Hegiilar and Benedictin&s. He died 4 December, 1075, and was canonized shortly afterwards.

HEBGENnoTUKK. //w/. <U ii'tjli^r; Butler, Livea of the Sainta, 4 Dec.; Michaud, Bioo. Univ.

T. J. Campbell.

Anno Domini. See Chronology, Christian.

Annulment. See Mahri.vge; Vows.

Annulus Piscatoris (Ring of the Fisherman). See Ring.

Annunciation of the Blessed 'Virgin Mary, The Fact of thk. is related in I.ukc. i, 20-158. The Evangelist tells us that in the sixth month after the conception of St. John the Baptist by Eliza- beth, the angel Gabriel was sent from God to the Virgin Mary, at Nazareth, a small town in the mountains of Galilee. Mary was of the house of David, and w:is espoused (i. e. married) to Joseph, of the same royal family. She had, however, not yet entered the hou.sehold of her spouse, but w;is still in her mother's house, working, perhaps, over her dowTy. (Bardenhewer, Maria VcrK., 09). -Vnd the angel having taken the figure and the form of man, came into the house and said to her: " Hail, full of grace (to whom is given grace, favoured one), the Ix)rd is with thee." Mary having heard the greeting words did not speak; she was troubled in .spirit, since she knew not the angel, nor the cause of his coming, nor the meaning of the salutation. And the angel continued and .said: "Fear not, Marj-, for thou hast found grace with God. Behold thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and shalt bring forth a son; and thou shalt call his name Jesus. He shall be great, and .shall be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of David his father; and he shall reign in the house of Jacob forever. And of his kingdom there shall be no end." The Virgin understood that there w:us question of the coining Redeemer. But, why should