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ably with the French historians M^zeray, Daniel, and Velly, altlioxigh he admits that he could freely grasp the manners and spirit of a past age when he studied them in their original sources. Anquetil's works are: 1. "M(5moire servant de r^ponse pour le sieur Delaistre, libraire;\ Reims, contre le sieur Anquetil" (Reims, 1758); 2. " Ahnanach de Reims" (1754); 3. " Ksprit (ie la Ligue, ou Histoire politique des troubles de la Fronde pendant le XVP et le XVIP sidcle" (1767, 3 vols.); 4. "Vie du mardchal de Villars, ^crite par lui-meme", followed by "Journal de la Gourde 1724 k 1734" (1787); 5. "Louis XIV, sa Cour et le Regent" (1789); "Precis de I'Histoire universelle" (1797); "Histoire de France depuis les Gaules jusqu'^ la fin de la monarchie" (1805); "Notice sur la vie de M. Anquetil-Duperron ". This was his brotlier, a notable Orientalist, his junior by eight years, who died one year before him.

Qd^rahd, La France litteraire.

John J. a' Becket. Ansaldi, C.\sto Innocenzio, theologian and archaeologist, b. at Piacenza, in Italy, 7 March, 1710; d. at Turin, in 1780. In 1726 he entered the Domin- ican Order at Parma, where he pursued his prepara- tory studies, and in 1733 was a student of the Minerva College at Rome, where he attached liimself to Cardi- nal Orsi. In 1735 he tauglit philosophy at Santa Caterina in Naples, and the following year received the cliair of metaphysics at the University. The King of Naples created a chair of theology for him in l737, which he retained till 1745. From 1745 to 1770 he tauglit successively at Brescia, Ferrara, and Turin. In the latter city he tauglit for twenty years witli great success and repute. He was averse to the scholastic method and therefore had serious trouble witli the authorities of the Order, which was finally smoothed over by Cardinal Quirini and Bene- dict XIV. His publislied works fill several volumes, and have ever been prized for a combination of theological and historical erudition. Most of them are directed against the anti-Christian tendencies of his day. His most important works are: "Patri- arehre Josephi, .^Egypti olim proregis, religio a crim- inationibus Basnagii vindicata" (Naples, 1738), vol. XIII in the "Raccolta d'opuscoli di P. Caloger^" (Venice, 1741); "De traditione principiorum legis naturalis" (Brescia, 1743; Oxford, 1765); "De Ro- mana tutelarium deorura in oppugnationibus urbium evocatione liber singularis" (Brescia, 1742; Venice, 1753, 1761, Oxford, 1765); "De martyribus sine san- guine" (Milan, 1744; Venice, 1756, in the "Thesaurus antiquitatum sacrarum" of Ugolini), a valual^le anti-Dodwellian dissertation on the sufferings of the primitive Christians; "Herodiani infanticidii vin- diciie" against those who impugned its historicity (Brescia, 1746); "De authenticis .sacrarum Scriptu- rarum lectionibus" (Verona, 1747), a very learned and solid work in favour of the accuracy of the P'athers in q\ioting Scripture; "De baptismate in Spiritu Sancto et igni commentarius sacer philologico- criticus" (.Milan, 1752); "De Theurgia deque tlicurgi- cis a divo Paulo memoratis commentarius" (Milan, 1761); " Riflessioni sopra i mezzi di perfezionare la filosfia morale" (Turin, 1778), with a biography of the autlior; " De porfectione morali" (Turin, 1790); " I'ru'lectiones theologicx de re sacramentaria " (Venice, 1792); His controversy witli France.sco Zanotti in defence of Maupertuis's apology (Berlin, 1719j for Christian morality, as superior to that of the Stoics, was celebrated in the eighteenth century. He also compiled: "Delia necessitil e veritii della ri-ligione naturale c rivelata" (Venice, 17.55), a col- lection of evidences and admissions from the works of celebrated non-fat holies. His brother, .ilso a Kominican, Carlo Agostino, wrote a work (Turin, 1705) on the large number of the Christians before

Constantine; another brother, Pietro Tomniaso, wrote an excellent dissertation on the divinity of Christ (Florence, 1754).

HuRTER, NomencUiior (2d ed.), Ill, 64-67.

Thos. M. Schwertner.

Ansaloni, Giordano (sometimes called Giordano DI San Stefano), b. at San Angelo in Sicily early in the seventeenth century; d. in Japan, 17 November, 1634. Having entered the Dominican Order and completed his studies at Salamanca, he was sent in 1625, together with many otliers, as a missionary to the Philippine Islands. Whilst serving as chap- lain in a hospital for Chinese and Japanese at Manila he had occasion to master these languages. In 1631 he offered to go to Japan and arrived at the out- break of the persecution in 1632. Disguised as a bonze he travelled over the land administering the rites of religion. He was seized 4 August, 1634, and subjected to tortures that lasted seven days. Not the least of his sufferings was his enforced presence at the beheading of his companion, Thomas of St. Hyacinth, and sixty-nine other Christians. On 18 November he was suspended till dead from a plank with his head buried in the grouna. Whilst detained in Mexico, on his way to the Philippine Islands, he wrote in Latin a series of lives of Domin- ican saints after a similar work by Hernando del Castillo and left at ManUa an unfinished treatise on Chinese sects and idols.

Qdetif and Echard, 5S. Ord. Prad.. II, 478; Alvarez del Manzano, Compendio de la reseila biogrdfica de los religiosos de la Provincia de Santisimo Rosario de Filipinaa (Manila, 1895), 122 sqq.

Thos. M. Schwertner.

Anschar (or Ansgarius), Saint, called the Apostle of the North, was b. in Picardy, 8 September. 801; d. 5 February, 865. He became a Benedictine of Corbie, whence he passed into Westphalia. With Harold, the newly baptized King of Denmark who had been expelled from his kingdom but was now returning, he and Autbert went to preach the Faith in that country where Ebbo, the Archbishop of Reims, had already laboured but without much success. Anschar founded a school at Schleswig, but the intemperate zeal of Harold provoked an- other storm which ended in a second expulsion, and the consequent return of the missionaries. In the company of the ambassadors of Louis le D^bonnaire, he then entered Sweden, and preached the Gospel there. Although the embassy had been attacked on its way and had ajiparently abandoned its mission, Anschar succeeded in entering the country, and was favourably received by the king, who permitted him to preach. The chief of the royal counsellors, Herigar, was converted, and built the first church of Sweden. Anschar remained there a year and a half, and returning was made bishop of the new see of Hamburg, and appointed by Gregory IV legate of the northern nations. He revived also the abbey of Turholt in Flanders, and established a school there. In 845 Eric, the King of Jutland, appeared off Hamlnirg with a fleet of 600 vessels, and de- stroyed the city. Anschar was for some time a fugi- tive and was deprived ahso of his Flemish possessions by Charles the Bald, but on the accession of Louis the German was restored to his see. The bishopric of Bremen which had been the See of Leudric, his enemy, was at the same time united to Hamburg, but tiiough the arrangement was made in 847 it was not confirmed by the Pope until 857, and Anschar was made the first archbishop. Meantime he made frequent excursions to Denmark, ostensibly in the quality of envoy of King Louis. He built a church at Scfileswig and afterwards went as Danish am- bassailor to his old mission of Sweden. King Olaf regarded him with favour, but the question of per- mitting him to preach was submitted to the oracles,