St. Augvistine by Paul V. and under the jurisdiction of the provincial of the Belgian Augustinians. The one nionasterj- was called Castelletum.
V. Anton'ians, Chaldean, of the Congregation of Saint-Hormisdas, founded by Gabriel Dambo (1809) in Mesopotamia. They have 4 convents and several parishes and stations.
Bi>si: in Diet, de thiol, cath.; Jeiler in Kirchenler.; Bat- T\Nnii ht. .Inn. ponl. cath. (Paris, 1899), 271; Hergenrothjir, Kirchrnijesch.
F. M. RUDGE.
Anthony of Padua, Saint, Franciscan Thauma- turgist, b. at Lisbon. 1195; d. at Vercelli, 13 June, 11231. He received in baptism the name of Ferdi- nand. Later writers of the fifteenth century asserted
St. Anthony of Padua
that his father was Martin Bouillon, descendant of the renowned Godfrey de liouillon, commander of the First Crusade, and his mother, Theresa Tavejra, de- scendant of Froila 1, fourth king of Asturia. Un- fortunately, however, his genealogy is uncertain; all that we know of his parents is that they were noble, powerful, and God-fearing people, and at the time of Ferdinand's birth were both still young, and living near the Cathedral of Lisbon. Having been educated in the Cathedral school, Ferdinand, at the age of fifteen, joined the Canons Regular of St. Augustine, in the convent of St. Vincent, just outside the city walls (1210). Two years later to avoid being dis- tracted by relatives and friends, who frequently came to visit him, he betook himself with permission of his superior to the Convent of Santa Croce in Coimbra (1212), where he remained for eight years, occupving his time mainly with study and prayer. Gifted with an excellent understanding and a pro- digious memory, he soon gathered from the Sacred Scriptures and the writings of the Holy Fathers a treasure of theological knowledge. In the year 1220, having seen conveyed into the Church of Santa Croce the bodies of the first Franciscan martyrs, who had BufTered death at Morocco, 10 January of the same year, he too wa.s inflamed with the desire of martyr- <loin, and resolved to become a Friar Minor, that he might preach the Faith to the Saracens and .sulTer for Christ's sake. Having confided his intention to some of the brethren of the convent of Ohvares (near
Coimbra), who came to beg alms at the Abbey of the Canons Regular, he received from their hands the Franciscan habit in the same Convent of Santa Croce. Thus Ferdinand left the Canons Regular of St. Augustine to join the Order of Friars Minor, taking at the same time the new name of Anthony, a name which later on the Convent of Olivares aLso adopted. A short time after his entry into the order, Anthony started for Morocco, but, stricken down by a severe illness, which affected him the entire winter, he was compelled to sail for Portugal the following spring, 1221. His ship, however, was overtaken by a violent storm and driven upon the coast of Sicily, where Anthony then remained for some time, till he had regained his health. Having heard meanwhile from the brethren of Messina that a general chapter was to be held at Assisi, 30 May, he journeyed thither, arriving in time to take part in it. The chapter over, Anthony remained entirely un- noticed. "He said not a word of his studies", writes liis earliest biographer, " nor of the ser\'ices he had performed; his only desire was to follow Jesus Christ anil Him crucified". Accordingly, hj applied to Father Graziano, Provincial of Coimbra, for a place where he could live in solitude and penance, and enter more fully into the spirit and discipline of Franciscan life. Father Graziano, being just at tliat time in need of a priest for the hermitage of Moiitepaolo (near Forli), sent him thither, that he mi,i;ht celebrate Mass for the lay-brethren.
Wliile Anthony lived retired at Montepaolo it happened, one day, that a number of Franciscan and Dominican friars were sent together to Forli for ordination. Anthony was also present, but simply as companion of the Provincial. When the time for ordination had arrived, it was found that no one had been appointed to preach. Tlie superior turned first to the Dominicans, and asked that one of tlieir number should address a few words to the assembled bretliren; but everyone declined, saying he was not prepared. In their emergency they then chose .\ulliony, whom they thought only able to read the Missal and Breviary, and commanded him to speak whatever the spirit of God might put into his mouth. Anthony, compelled by obedience, spoke at first slowly and timidly, but soon enkindled with fervour, he began to explain the most hidden sense of Holy Scripture with such profound erudition and sublime doctrine that all were struck with astonishment. With that moment began Anthony's public career. St. Francis, informed of his learning, directed him by the following letter to teach theology to the brethren:
"To Brother Anthony, my bishop (i. e. teacher of sacred sciences), Brother Francis sends his greetings. It is my pleasure that thou teach theology to the brethren, provided, however, that as the Rule pre- scribes, the spirit of prayer and devotion may not be extinguished. Farewell " (1224). Before undertak- ing the instruction, Antliony went for some time to Vercelli, to confer with tlie famous Abbot, Thomas Gallo; thence he taught successively in Bologna and Montpellier in 1224, and later at Toulouse. Noth- ing whatever is left of his instruction; the primitive documents, as well as the legendary ones, maintain complete silence on this point. Nevertheless, by studying his works, we can form for ourselves a sufTicicnt idea of the character of his doctrine; a doctrine, namely, which, leaving aside all aritl specu- lation, prefers an entirely seraphic cliaracter, corre- sponding to the spirit and ideal of St. Francis.
It was as an orator, however, rather than as pro- fessor, that Anthony reapeil his richest harvest. He possessed in an eminent degree all the good qualities that characterize an eloquent preacher: a loud and clear voice, a winning countenance, wonder- ful memory, and profound learning, to which were